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The effect of interdental cleaning on progression of caries, periodontitis and tooth loss over 7 years - an analysis of the SHIP-TREND study

  • The effect of interdental cleaning on progression of caries, periodontitis and tooth loss is a highly discussed topic in dental research since these conditions are among the most common infectious diseases of mankind. Caries is a multifactorial disease defined by a demineralization process of the dental hard tissue, caused by bacteria, which, if untreated ultimately results in tooth decay and tooth loss. A study published in 2015 confirmed that untreated caries in permanent teeth is still the most prevalent condition worldwide. Gingivitis, an acute inflammation of the gingival tissue, caused by substances deduced from the microbial plaque can develop into the clinical picture of an acute periodontitis. Severe periodontitis is still the sixth-most prevalent condition globally with a prevalence of 11.2% between 1990-2010. Progression of periodontitis leads to bone loss which as well ultimately results in tooth loss, if left untreated. In our study we want to examine the use of IDA in relation to caries and periodontal diseases, thus tooth retention to gain more detailed and long-term results about the effect of IDA and therefore prevent, counteract and understand these oral diseases better. Using data from SHIP-TREND, a population-based observational cohort study conducted in Western Pomerania (Germany), we examined effects of daily usage of interdental cleaning aids on follow-up (SHIP-TREND-1) values of oral outcomes comprising caries (DFS, interdental DFS, non-interdental-DFS), gingivitis (plaque, BOP), chronic periodontitis (mean PD, mean interdental PD, mean non-interdental PD, mean CAL, mean interdental CAL, mean non-interdental CAL, CDC/APP case definition) and tooth loss (number of missing teeth) using comprehensively adjusted linear and ordinal logistic regression models. In total, data from over 2,000 participants with a follow-up time of approximately seven years were utilized. Based on interviews, participants were asked about their habit and the regularity of using interdental aids as a cleaning aid at home. Furthermore, the type of IDA was then analyzed and differentiated into groups of IDA non-users, wooden stick users, floss users and interdental brush users. Regular interdental aids usage was associated with reduced levels of periodontitis severity (mean PD and mean CAL) and gingivitis variables (plaque and BOP). The beneficial effect was more pronounced in participants using dental floss or interdental brushes regularly. After seven years of follow-up, odds of having higher mean PD levels were halved (Odds Ratio 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35;0.66) comparing dental floss users with non-users. Respective ORs were 0.61 (95%CI 0.45;0.83) for mean CAL, 0.52 (95%CI 0.36;0.77) for BOP and 0.36 (95%CI 0.24;0.54) for plaque. Similarly, ORs for interdental brush users were 0.75 (95%CI 0.55;1.02) for mean PD, 0.64 (95%CI 0.41;0.97) for BOP and 0.55 (95%CI 0.39;0.77) for plaque, compared to non-users. For wooden sticks non-significant associations were found, which does not allow any statement to be made regarding possible effects on oral health. Caries variables (DF-S) and the number of missing teeth were non-significantly associated with interdental aids usage. In conclusion, results suggest that interdental cleaning aids usage may contribute to healthier gums and reduced inflammation, if combined with daily toothbrushing and regular dental checkups. Specifically, dental flossing and interdental brushing might notably reduce gingival inflammation and therefore prevent chronic periodontitis. These findings contribute to a more distinct picture of how IDA might help to prevent oral diseases and must be properly integrated into our daily oral hygiene program.

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Author:Dr. Elena Marie ConradORCiD
Title Additional (German):Der Effekt von Interdentalreinigung auf die Progression von Karies, Parodontitis und Zahnverlust über 7 Jahre – eine Analyse der SHIP-TREND Studie
Referee:Prof. Dr. Alexander Welk, Prof. Dr. Dirk Ziebolz
Advisor:Prof. Dr. Alexander Welk
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Completion:2023
Date of first Publication:2023/11/20
Granting Institution:Universität Greifswald, Universitätsmedizin
Date of final exam:2023/11/09
Release Date:2023/11/20
GND Keyword:Zahnmedizin; Interdentalreinigung; Karies; Parodontitis; Zahnverlust; SHIP
Page Number:81
Faculties:Universitätsmedizin / Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung, Parodontologie und Endodontologie
DDC class:600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit