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Effect of age on the gene expression following focal cerebral ischemia in rats

  • Aging is a risk factor for stroke. Animal models of stroke have been widely used to study the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, which in turn helped to develop numerous therapeutic strategies. Despite the considerable success of therapeutic strategies in animal models of ischemic stroke, almost all of them have been proved to be unsuccessful in the clinical trials. One of explanation is that data obtained from young animals may not fully resemble the effects of ischemic stroke in aged animals or elder patients, causing the discrepancy between animal experiments and clinical trials. To investigate these differences with regard to age, pathway specific gene arrays were used to identify and isolate differentially expressed genes in periinfarct following focal cerebral ischemia. The results from this study showed a persistent up-regulation of pro-apoptotic and inflammatory-related genes up to 14 days post stroke, a 50% reduction in the number of transcriptionally active stem cell-related genes and a decreased expression of genes with anti-oxidative capacity in aged rats. Also, it was observed that at day 3 post-stroke, the contralateral, healthy hemisphere of young rats is much more active at transcriptional level than that of the aged rats, especially at the level of stem cell- and hypoxia signaling associated genes. Next, protein levels between young and aged post-stroke rats in periinfarct were compared using proteomic tools. Among others, AnxA3 was identified as differentially regulated protein, but the expression of AnxA3 has no significant changes in periinfarct between these two age groups at day 3 and 14. Different from periinfarct, a strong upregulation of AnxA3 at day 3 in young rats plus a strengthened increase of AnxA3 at day 14 in aged rats using immunohistochemical quantification indicated a delayed microglial accumulation in infarct core of aged rats, suggesting that quick activation of microglia in infarct core of young rats might be beneficial for recovery. Colocalization with established microglial marker demonstrated that AnxA3 as a novel microglial marker is implicated in the microglial responses to the focal cerebral ischemia. In addition, it was found that AnxA3 positive microglial cells incorporated more proliferating cell marker BrdU. Third, the expression, localization and function of several transport proteins were investigated in young rats following focal ischemic stroke. P-gp staining was detected in endothelial cells of desintegrated capillaries and by day 14 in newly generated blood vessels. There was no significant difference, however, in the Mdr1a mRNA amount in the periinfarct region compared to the contralateral site. For Bcrp, a significant mRNA up-regulation was observed from day 3 to 14. This up-regulation was followed by the protein as confirmed by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Oatp2, located in the vascular endothelium, was also up-regulated at day 14. For Mrp5, an up-regulation was observed in neurons in the periinfarct region (day 14). In conclusion, reduced transcriptional activity in the healthy, contralateral sensorimotor cortex in conjunction with an early up-regulation of proapoptotic genes and a decreased expression of genes with anti-oxidative capacity in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex of aged rats, plus the delayed up-regulation of AnxA3 positive microglial cells in infarct core may contribute to diminished recovery in post-stroke old rats. In addition, it was demonstrated in this study that after stroke the transport proteins were up-regulated with a maximum at day 14, a time point that coincides with behavioral recuperation. The study further suggests Bcrp as a pronounced marker for the regenerative process and a possible functional role of Mrp5 in surviving neurons. This study provided several evidences for the different responses of young and aged rats using a focal ischemic stroke model. Understanding the effect of age is crucial for the development of relevant therapeutic drugs.
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Metadaten
Author: Yalikun Suofu
URN:urn:nbn:de:gbv:9-000341-9
Title Additional (German):Genexpression nach Schlaganfall im Rattenmodell: der Einfluss des Alters
Advisor:Dr. rer. nat. Walter Reinhard, Dr. med Helmut Feistner, Dr.med. Christof Kessler
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2007/03/26
Granting Institution:Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Medizinische Fakultät (bis 2010)
Date of final exam:2007/03/28
Release Date:2007/03/26
Tag:Aging, Annexin A3, focal cerebral ischemia, gene expression, rat
GND Keyword:ABC-Transporter, Alter, Genexpression, Ratte, Schlaganfall
Faculties:Universit√§tsmedizin / Klinik und Poliklinik f√ľr Neurologie
DDC class:600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit