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Characterization of the pectinolytic enzymes of the marine psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain ANT/505

  • The biodiversity of marine microorganisms opens a promising potential for the discovery of new technical enzymes. During this study a characterization of marine microorganisms, isolated from Arctic or Antarctic ice, sea water or sediment from the ocean was performed based on a comprehensive strain collection at the Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung. These marine psychrophilic bacteria indicated a wide spectrum of extracellular cold-active enzymes. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that many of these psychrophilic bacteria represent new species. Characterization of selected isolates by means of transmission electron or raster electron microscopy showed remarkably pleomorphic cellular structures throughout their growth. The major part of this thesis focuses on a marine Antarctic, psychrophilic bacterium (strain ANT/505) isolated from sea ice covered surface water from the Southern Ocean, which was identified to express a very uncommon enzymatic activity for the marine environment, namely a pectinolytic activity. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA of isolate ANT/505 and biochemical tests indicated a taxonomical affiliation to the specie Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. The supernatant of this bacterial isolate showed after growth on citrus pectin three different pectinolytic activities. By activity screening of a genomic DNA library of isolate ANT/505 in Escherichia coli, two different pectinolytic clones could be isolated. Subcloning and sequencing revealed two open reading frames of 1671 and 1968 nt corresponding to proteins of 68 and 75 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the two orfs showed homology to pectate lyases from Erwinia chrysanthemi and Aspergillus nidulans. The pectate lyases contain signal peptides of 17 and 26 amino acids length that were correctly processed after overexpression in E. coli BL21. Both enzymes were purified by anionic exchange chromatography. Maximal enzymatic activities for both pectate lyases were observed at a temperature of 30°C and a pH range of 9-10. The Km values of both lyases for pectate and citrus pectin were 1 g⋅l-1 and 5 g⋅l-1, respectively. Calcium was required for activity on pectic substrates, while the addition of 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) resulted in complete inhibition of the enzymes. These two cold-adapted enzymes represent the first pectate lyases isolated and characterized from a marine bacterium. Further cloning and sequence analyses revealed that PelA from P. haloplanktis is an exceptionally big bifunctional enzyme featuring pectate lyase and pectin methylesterase activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the pectin methylesterase domain showed homology to group I pectin methylesterases from Erwinia chrysanthemi and Erwinia carotovora. The pectin methylesterase domain of PelA was found to show highest homology to a potential pectin methylesterase from Saccharophagus degradans strain MD2-40. Maximum pectin methylesterase activity of PelA was detected at a pH of 7.5 and a maximum temperature of 30°C. This cold-adapted enzyme revealed high remaining pectin methylesterase activity at low temperatures around 5°C and was quickly unstabilized at temperatures above 45°C. The analysis of the localization of the two pectinolytic genes on the genome of P. haloplanktis ANT/505 revelaed that these pectinase genes are expressed from independent cistrons, which are not clustered but located at distant positions on chromosome I of the P. haloplanktis genome. It was found that the transcription of both pectinase genes is induced by the presence of pectin. By means of primer extension the promoter regions of both cistrons were detected.
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Author: Le Van Truong
Title Additional (German):Charakterisierung von pektinolytischen Enzymen des marinen psychrophilen Bakteriums Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis Stamm ANT/505
Advisor: Professor Schweder Thomas
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2006/11/23
Granting Institution:Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät (bis 31.05.2018)
Date of final exam:2006/11/17
Release Date:2006/11/23
Tag:pectinase psychrophilic pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis ANT/505
GND Keyword:Pectat-Lyase; Pektinesterase
Faculties:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Pharmazie
DDC class:500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie