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Recent geochemical and mineralogical alteration processes in tropical coastal sediments of Vietnam

  • The dissertation contains two main parts: (i) Syn-sedimentary hydrodynamic processes & relationship with elemental distribution, clay matter, (ii) Short-term mineral alteration during early diagenes. Samples were taken from the uppermost one metre (<50 year old in RRD, < 300 y old in south central VN). In part one, three principal hydrodynamic factors can be revealed based on End-Member Modelling Algorithm (EMMA), for the polymodal grain-size distribution patterns in coastline of VN (i) Accumulation factor: accumulation of terrigenous sediments linked with a grain size separation (distance dependence), (ii) Erosion factor: synsedimentary erosion by wave activities, (iii) Aeolian factor: deposition from neighbour sand bar by wind (typically only for low sedimentation rate, like in South Central Coast but not to detect in RRD). Distributions of clay matter and chemical elements in the coastal sediments in Vietnam are strongly influenced by hydrodynamic forces (distance from the coastline). In part two, particle-wise analysis by TEM allowed to determined four main mixed layer series: di-Vermiculite/Smectite-ml, Kaolinite/ Expandable-ml, Illite/Smectite-ml, Chlorite/Saponite-ml. Three principal mineral alteration processes can be detected in coastal sediments during early diagenesis: Dissolution, Smectitization, Kaolinitization, based on XRD (CSD, peak area) & TEM-EDX (particle morphology, chemical formula, polytype, particle frequency). Dissolution process of clay matter is typically in the coastal alkaline condition. It is a function of diagenetic time. Dissolution begins with a higher degree of dislocation and is followed by step-wise delamination & dissolution of the first stacks Smectitization (mirrored in diVS-ml series) alters mica-like structures (illite, dioctahedral vermiculite) to smectitic structures (Beidellite, Montmorillonite). Smectitization process occurs in group-wise layer by layer transforming mechanism (mica-like layer to smectitic layer). Each step is indicated by a gauss-like distribution of the octahedral layer charge with K as trigger. Kaolinitization of KE series alters smectitic structure (beidellite, smectitic KE-ml) to kaolinitic structure (kaolinitic KE-ml, kaolinite) "interlayer by interlayer" transformation of KE-ml series is comparable to kaolinitization mechanism discussed by Dudek et al. (2006).OH- groups in ambient could be the trigger. Mangroves biota influences the sediments in two main pathways: Nutrients supply & trapping function (clay matter, heavy metals)Interaction of active root-layer: intensification of dissolution, smectitization & kaolinitization: uptake of K, Na by mangrove root is possible trigger Human activities like shrimp cultivation have stopped the influences of the former active roots.Besides, erosion process related to water discharge gives rise to dispersion of clay species & heavy metals => more toxic for ecosystem.
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Author: Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc
Title Additional (English):keine Angaben
Title Additional (German):keine Angaben
Advisor:Dr. Jörn Kasbohm
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2006/11/28
Granting Institution:Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät (bis 31.05.2018)
Date of final exam:2006/11/17
Release Date:2006/11/28
GND Keyword:Aquatisches Sediment, Transienten-Elektromagnetik, Vietnam, Änderung
Faculties:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Geographie und Geologie
DDC class:500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 550 Geowissenschaften, Geologie