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Interactions of mono- and divalent cations with cardiolipin monolayers

  • This work examines the influence of monovalent and divalent cations on tetramyristoyl cardiolipin (TMCL) monolayers. A lipid monolayer can undergo an ordering transition of the lipid alkyl chains from a disordered fluid phase (liquid-expanded (LE)) to an ordered gel phase (liquid-condensed (LC)). Compression of the lipid monolayer in a Pockels-Langmuir trough was monitored with a Wilhelmy plate tensiometer, yielding the surface pressure π in dependence of the area a molecule can occupy on average A, as a π-A-isotherm. The onset of the first order LE/LC phase transition is marked by an abrupt change in the isotherm at surface pressure πc. These associated lipid membrane changes were characterized by variation of the compression speed, kind and concentration of the monovalent and divalent salt, pH, and temperature. The CL monolayer phase transition was found to depend on the compression speed, yielding only a small variation in the compression isotherms. For monovalent cations on the cardiolipin monolayer, the dependence on salt concentration of the lipid liquid gel phase transition surface pressure πc was determined and a non-monotonic behavior was found, with a maximum in πc for a salt concentration of 0.1 mol/l. The maximum in πc can be shifted with pH (e.g. pH = 4.2). This behavior extended to potassium, sodium and cesium cations in the subphase. No ion specific effects were observed, which pointed to the prevalence of electrostatic interactions in the system. Different divalent salt subphases, of either magnesium, calcium, strontium, manganese, iron or zinc salts, with fixed sodium chloride concentration of 0.15 mol/l at pH of 5.8 and 25 °C were investigated. πc decreases upon addition of divalent salts to the subphase. This points to increased screening and binding effects. Strongest binding effects were observed for calcium and manganese cations. The electrostatic interactions of the system were modeled with a mean-field theory: Grahame’s equation, and a simple law of mass action. CL is modeled at half its molecular area and half its charge, with a proton dissociation constant of the phosphate group Ka,intrinsic(PO4) = 0.1 mol/l. The agreement with the experiment was satisfactory. A linear dependence of πc on the temperature was found for cardiolipin monolayers on all subphases. The isothermal area compressibility modulus KA is calculated from selected isotherms. It was found that the flexibility of the monolayer decreases with temperature and the area per molecule for the cardiolipin fluid phase. The compression speed, monovalent salt concentration, pH, and selected divalent cations were investigated with the BAM. For all a sigmoidal growth of xgel with compression was observed. For high salt concentrations non-circular and dendritic domains were observed. A simple model for the nucleation process was introduced, yielding an estimate of 20 nm for the critical domain radius, which is below the resolution of the BAM, but a common length scale in biological systems.

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Author: Renko Kensbock
Title Additional (German):Wechselwirkung von mono- und divalenten Kationen mit Cardiolipin-Monoschichten
Referee:Prof. Dr. Christiane A. Helm, Prof. Dr. Gerald Brezesinski
Advisor:Prof. Dr. Christiane A. Helm
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Completion:2017
Date of first Publication:2018/02/27
Granting Institution:Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät (bis 31.05.2018)
Date of final exam:2017/12/21
Release Date:2018/02/27
GND Keyword:BAM, Brewster angle microscopy, Cardiolipin, LE/LC phase transition, TMCL, isotherms, monolayer
Faculties:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Physik
DDC class:500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 530 Physik