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Comparison of the Irritation Potency of Selected Wound Antiseptics in the Hen’s Egg Test on Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) to Predict their Compatibility to Wounds

  • Introduction: Antiseptics are used for the prophylaxis of infections of acute wounds and for the treatment of critically colonized chronic wounds as well as localized infections of acute and chronic wounds. If an antiseptic with too much tissue toxicity and/or too little efficacy is used, the wound healing can be delayed. Objective: The aim was to compare the irritation potency of frequently used wound antiseptics by using the hen's egg test on the chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM). Additionally, the influence of antiphlogistic active additives which might increase the tolerability was examined. To allow a more extensive comparison, antiseptics classified as obsolete such as hydrogen peroxide, creams on PVP- iodine base, silver sulfadiazine, chlorhexidine and nitrofural as well as the non-antiseptic wound treatment agents dexpanthenol and hemoglobin spray were also examined. Method: The HET-CAM was used as a semi-in-vivo method to test the tolerability of wound antiseptics to tissues by observing the reactions that occur in the blood vessels of the highly vascularized CAM such as hemorrhage, lysis and coagulation. The irritation score (IS) was calculated and differentiated in 4 ranges according to Spielmann (1991). Results: The vascular injuries of the CAM were considered as an indirect indicator of the tolerability. It is accepted that agents with no or low irritation potential on the CAM are to be preferred in the clinical practice if they are clinically effective. Severe CAM reaction was observed after short-term application of octenidine based wound gel (active ingredient octenidine 0.05%) (IS: 10.3) and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.5% solution (IS: 9.5). Moderate reaction was observed for the combination of octenidine 0.05% in aqueous solution with panthenol 1.34% and allantoin 0.2% (IS: 8.7), hydrogen peroxide 1.5% in aqueous solution (IS: 6.1) and hydrogen peroxide 0.5% solution (IS: 5.5). Slight reaction was observed for hydrogen peroxide 1.5% solution in combination with sodium thiocyanate 0.698% (IS: 2.6), sodium thiocyanate 0.698% solution (IS: 2.1) and Dermacyn® (active ingredient NaOCl/HOCl each 0.004) (IS: 1.2). Polihexanide 0.04% in Ringer solution (IS: 0.9), Polihexanide 0.05% in Lipofundin, Granulox® (active agent hemoglobin 10%) (IS: 0) and dexpanthenol 5% solution (IS: 0) showed no reaction. In the long-term observation (24 hours after application), Dermacyn® showed the best results (59% of irritation remained alive after 24 hours). The addition of dexpanthenol and allantoin reduced the irritability only slightly, whereas the decrease of IS of hydrogen peroxide by addition of sodium thiocyanate was almost significant (p 0.0596). Conclusion: It is suggested that agents with no or low irritation potential on the CAM are to be preferred in the clinical practice if they are clinically effective. It is suggested that further in vivo and in vitro studies are to be undertaken with these agents. Solely regarding local tolerability, polihexanide and hypochlorite are the antiseptic agents of choice of the tested preparations. The wound oxygenizer hemoglobin spray is tolerated without irritation as well as the negative control 0.9% NaCl solution. Because of their other disadvantages in conjunction with their irritability, the outdated cream formulations on basis of silver sulfadiazine, PVP- iodine, chlorhexidine and nitrofural cannot be recommended for wound antisepsis.

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Author: Qasim Abu Elrub
Title Additional (German):Vergleich der Irritationspotenz ausgewählter Wundantiseptika im HET-CAM zur Prognose der Wundverträlichkeit
Referee:Prof. Dr. med. Karl Oldhafer
Advisor:Prof. Dr. med. Axel Kramer
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Completion:2017
Date of first Publication:2018/10/19
Granting Institution:Universität Greifswald, Universitätsmedizin
Date of final exam:2018/10/08
Release Date:2018/10/19
Tag:Wound antiseptics, HET-CAM, irritation score, octenidine, chlorhexidine, polihexanide, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, hemoglobin spray, allantoin, dexpanthenol, thiocyanate.
GND Keyword:Antiseptikum
Page Number:88
Faculties:Universitätsmedizin / Institut für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin
DDC class:600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit