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Es wurde eine Methode zur Herstellung ultradĂĽnner Filme aus Metall bzw. metallischen Verbindungen (Legierungen) etabliert. Die Struktur und die physikalischen Eigenschaften der Filme wurden untersucht. Die entwickelte PrĂ¤parationsmethode beruht auf induzierter Filmkontraktion nach erzwungener Benetzung (iFCaFW). Die Filme bestehen aus ultradĂĽnnen vertikal heterostrukturierten Multischichten (2D-VHML), sie entstehen durch den Beschichtungsvorgang und bestehen aus jeweils einer nm-dicken metallischen Schicht (M) eingebettet zwischen zwei Metall(hydr)oxidschichten (MOxHy) im nm- bis sub-nm Bereich. Dieser vertikal heterostrukturierte Aufbau wurde bei allen untersuchten Filmmaterialien beobachtet. Alle in dieser Arbeit vorgestellten Schichtsysteme wurden unter atmosphĂ¤rischem Druck hergestellt. Es konnten Substrate aus Silicium und Muskovit sowie aus Borosilikat- und Kalk-Natron-Glas (ObjekttrĂ¤ger) beschichtet werden. Jede, aus flĂĽssigem Metall bzw. flĂĽssiger Legierung hergestellte Schicht verfĂĽgt ĂĽber eine feste (Hydr)oxidschicht an der LuftgrenzflĂ¤che. Diese feste (Hydr)oxidschicht fungiert als Substrat fĂĽr die nĂ¤chste darĂĽber aufgebrachte Schicht aus flĂĽssigem Metall bzw. flĂĽssiger Legierung. Somit entstehen vertikal heterostrukturierte Multischichten durch identische Wiederholung des Beschichtungsvorgangs. Dies ist eine innovative und vergleichsweise umweltfreundliche Methode, um transparente, elektrisch leitfĂ¤hige und lateral homogene nm-dĂĽnne ein- oder mehrschichtige Metallfilme herzustellen. Verwendet wurden Metalle mit sehr niedriger Schmelztemperatur (kleiner als 300 Â°C), wie Bismut, Gallium, Indium, Zinn und ihre Legierungen. Die hohe OberflĂ¤chenspannung der geschmolzenen Metalle und Legierungen sowie die AdhĂ¤sion mit der die (Hydr)oxidhaut dieser Metalle und Legierungen auf verschiedenen Substraten haftet ermĂ¶glicht die Beschichtungsmethode.

This thesis contains studies on a special class of topological insulators, so called anomalous Floquet topological insulators, which exclusively occur in periodically driven systems. At the boundary of an anomalous Floquet topological insulator, topologically protected transport occurs even though all of the Floquet bands are topologically trivial. This is in stark contrast to ordinary topological insulators of both static and Floquet type, where the topological invariants of the bulk bands completely determine the chiral boundary states via the bulk-boundary correspondence. In anomalous Floquet topological insulators, the boundary states are instead characterized by bulk invariants that account for the full dynamical evolution of the Floquet system.
Here, we explore the interplay between topology, symmetry, and non-Hermiticity in two-dimensional anomalous Floquet topological insulators. The central results of this exploration are (i) new expressions for the topological invariants of symmetry-protected anomalous Floquet topological phases which can be efficiently computed numerically, (ii) the construction of a universal driving protocol for symmetry-protected anomalous Floquet topological phases and its experimental implementation in photonic waveguide lattices, (iii) the discovery of non-Hermitian boundary state engineering which provides unprecedented possibilities to control and manipulate the topological transport of anomalous Floquet topological insulators.

Experience in the construction of optimized stellarators shows the coil system is a significant challenge. The precision necessary allow the generation of accurate flux surfaces in recent experiments affected both cost and schedule negatively. Moreover, recent experiments at Wendelstein 7-X have shown that small field corrections were necessary for the operation of specific desired magnetic configurations. Therefore, robust magnetic configurations in terms of coil geometry and assembly tolerances have a high potential to facilitate swifter and less expensive construction of future, optimized stellarators. We present a new coil optimization technique that is designed to seek out coil configurations that are resilient against 3D coil displacements. This stochastic version of stellarator coil optimization uses the sampling average approach to incorporate an iterative perturbation analysis into the optimization routine. The result is a robust magnetic configuration that simultaneously reproduces the target magnetic field more accurately and leads to a better fusion performing coil configuration.

The non-renewable energy sources coal, oil and natural gas that contribute the major share of the world's energy, will be running out in the next 40-80 years. With the growing energy demands especially in developing countries, which is likely to surpass that of the developed countries in next 50 years, an alternate energy source is the need to the hour. The nuclear fusion energy is foreseen as one of the potential candidates to solve the current global energy crisis. One of the major challenges faced by the fusion community is the problem of power exhaust. With the larger fusion devices to be built in the future, the heat load on the plasma facing components are expected to grow higher. The present work explores two numerical studies performed on the Wendelstein 7-X, the world's largest stellarator type fusion device, to cope with this problem.
The first project on `'Numerical Studies on the impact of Connection Length in Wendelstein 7-X'' identifies magnetic configuration with long connection lengths, which could bring down the peak heat fluxes onto the divertor to manageable levels, by greater role of cross-field transport which may assist to get a wider heat deposition profile. The second project on `'Development of Heating Scenario to Reduce the Impact of Bootstrap Currents in Wendelstein 7-X'' advocates a novel self-consistent approach to reach high plasma density at full heating power without overloading the divertor during the transient phase of the evolution of the toroidal plasma current, by controlling two parameters; density and power. The aim of both the projects is to contribute to tackling the challenge of the tremendous power exhaust from fusion plasma which, if solved, will be a large step closer to a fusion power plant.

An experimental investigation of particle parallel flows has been carried out at Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), one of the most advanced stellarators in the world. The studies are restricted to the outermost plasma region, the scrape-off layer (SOL), which is shaped to tackle the exhaust problem in vision of future fusion reactors based on plasma magnetic confinement. The aim of the measurements is to set the basis for a physics analysis of the SOL dynamics by obtaining direct information on convective heat transport, together with the assessment of the predominant flow directions of the main plasma ions and of fusion-products or wall-released impurities. In this way, a better comprehension of the interplay between the transport parallel and perpendicular to the SOL field lines can be achieved, contributing to the understanding of the effectiveness of the island divertor configuration.
The chosen instrument for the experimental studies is the Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy (CIS) diagnostic, a camera-based interferometer capable of measuring 2D Doppler particle flows associated with a selected visible line from the plasma. The diagnostic is distinguished by its high time resolution and spatial coverage, allowing the visualisation and measurements of flow velocities for a full module of W7-X simultaneously. A CIS diagnostic has been fully designed for W7-X with an improved level of accuracy achieved thanks to the implementation of a new calibration source, a continuous-wave-emission tunable laser. The laser allowed a full characterization of the diagnostic and a frequent precise calibration, making the CIS system reliable for parallel flow investigations during the operational campaign OP1.2. The validity and importance of the CIS measurements have been further confirmed with dedicated simulation of the SOL plasma parameters by the EMC3-EIRENE code, and by comparisons with other edge diagnostics. The CIS results show the effects related to dynamical changes in the SOL due to impurity gas puffs or the development of a plasma current. Moreover, CIS can be used as a powerful tool to test the limits of the current theoretical models, for example in the case of forward and reversed field experiments.

Barrier corona (BC) arrangements are employed in different plasma-based applications such as material surface and exhaust gas treatments. However, a comprehensive study about the discharge behavior and properties in such strongly asymmetric arrangements is still missing. This dissertation is devoted to the detailed investigation of single microdischarges (MDs) in a sinusoidally driven BC discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. The discharge arrangement consist of a sharp metal pin and a dielectric-covered hemispherical electrode. It is the first study of volume BC discharges, in which phasially-resolved spatio-temporal development of the MDs are recorded using a multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TC-SPC) technique. The morphology of the MDs is recorded using an ICCD camera. A voltage probe and a current probe are employed to measure the applied voltage and current pulses. Furthermore, phase-resolved current measurements and statistical studies of current pulse amplitudes are realized using an oscilloscope.
Due to the asymmetric geometry and material of the electrodes, discharge behavior in the two polarities of the applied sinusoidal voltage is significantly different. For the voltage amplitude being applied, mostly two MDs appear in the anodic pin half-cycles. It is observed that the breakdown mechanism in both MDs is a positive streamer starting near the anode, similar to the single MDs in symmetric dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). However, the second MDs have different properties, such as longer duration of the bulk plasma and broader current pulses. It is considered that the differences are mainly due to the positive surface charges deposited by the first MDs on the dielectric. It is proposed, for the first time, that the current pulse derivative maximum corresponds to the arrival of the streamer head at the cathode surface. This is used to synchronize the spatio-temporal development of the MDs with their current pulses. The accuracy of the synchronization is limited to the rise-time of the current probe (350 ps). In each cathodic pin half-cycle, only one major MD appears. The appearance and amplitude of the MDs are more erratic compared to the anodic pin polarity. The TC-SPC recordings show that the MDs appearing at low applied voltages have a similar spatio-temporal development to the MDs of the anodic pin polarity. On the other hand, at high applied voltages a development similar to transient sparks, i.e. a double-streamer starting near the tip of the pin (cathode), is observed. The statistical study shows that in DBD-like MDs the current pulse amplitude is not dependent on the appearance phase (or applied voltage), but this is not the case for the transient sparks.
Since BC reactors are also used for air cleaning, a set of experiments is done with 35 ppm toluene additive. It is observed that adding toluene results in 500~V lower breakdown voltage. Hence, the discharge in the presence of toluene is operated under over-voltage condition, resulting in stronger MDs in the anodic pin, and earlier-appearing as well as weaker MDs in the cathodic pin half-cycles.
The results of this dissertation about the spatio-temporal development and statistical behavior of the single MDs are foreseen to be employed in the study and optimization of plasma reactors, such as "Stacked DBD Reactor," which are developed for exhaust gas and material surface treatment. Furthermore, the results are a benchmark for the study of a novel discharge arrangement with a rotating dielectric electrode.

The Maddenâ€“Julian oscillation (MJO) is a major
source of intraseasonal variability in the troposphere. Recently, studies have indicated that also the solar 27-day variability could cause variability in the troposphere. Furthermore, it has been indicated that both sources could be linked, and particularly that the occurrence of strong MJO events could be modulated by the solar 27-day cycle. In this paper, we analyze whether the temporal evolution of the MJO phases could also be linked to the solar 27-day cycle. We basically count the occurrences of particular MJO phases as a function of time lag after the solar 27-day extrema in about 38 years of MJO data. Furthermore, we develop a quantification approach to measure the strength of such a possible relationship and use this to compare the behavior
for different atmospheric conditions and different datasets, among others. The significance of the results is estimated based on different variants of the Monte Carlo approach, which are also compared. We find indications for a synchronization between the MJO phase evolution and the solar 27-day cycle, which are most notable under certain conditions: MJO events with a strength greater than 0.5, during the easterly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, and during boreal winter. The MJO appears to cycle through its eight phases within two solar 27-day cycles. The phase relation between the MJO and the solar variation appears to be such that the MJO predominantly transitions from phase 8 to 1 or from phase 4 and 5 during the solar 27-day minimum. These results strongly depend on the MJO index used such that the synchronization is most clearly seen when using univariate indices like the OLR-based MJO index (OMI) in the analysis but can hardly be seen with multivariate indices like the real-time multivariate MJO index (RMM). One possible explanation could be that the synchronization pattern is encoded particularly in the underlying outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data. A weaker dependence of the results on the underlying solar proxy is also observed but not further investigated. Although we think that these initial indications are already worth noting, we do not claim to unambiguously prove this relationship in the present study, neither in a statistical nor in a causal sense. Instead, we challenge these initial findings
ourselves in detail by varying underlying datasets and methods and critically discuss resulting open questions to lay a solid foundation for further research.

We report on the effect of solar variability at the 27-day and the 11-year timescales on standard phase height measurements in the ionospheric D region carried out in central Europe. Standard phase height corresponds to the reflection height of radio waves (for constant solar zenith distance) in the ionosphere near 80 km altitude, where NO is ionized by solar Lyman radiation. Using the superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method, we extract statistically highly significant solar 27-day signatures in standard phase heights.
The 27-day signatures are roughly inversely correlated to solar proxies, such as the F10.7 cm radio flux or the Lyman-flux. The sensitivity of standard phase height change to solar forcing at the 27-day timescale is found to be in good agreement with the sensitivity for the 11-year solar cycle,suggesting similar underlying mechanisms. The amplitude of the 27-day signature in standard phase height is larger duringsolar minimum than during solar maximum, indicating that the signature is not only driven by photoionization of NO.We identified statistical evidence for an influence of ultra-long planetary waves on the quasi 27-day signature of standard phase height in winters of solar minimum periods.