## Institut für Physik

### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (150)
- Article (71)
- Conference Proceeding (17)

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (238)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- no (238)

#### Keywords

- - (83)
- Plasma (24)
- Plasmaphysik (24)
- Plasmadiagnostik (14)
- Stellarator (12)
- Komplexes Plasma (7)
- Polyelektrolyt (7)
- Kernfusion (6)
- Wendelstein 7-X (6)
- dusty plasma (6)

#### Institute

- Institut für Physik (238)

#### Publisher

- IOP Publishing (55)
- MDPI (12)
- Frontiers Media S.A. (4)
- IOP Science (3)
- European Geosciences Union (2)
- John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2)
- APS (1)
- IOP (1)
- IOP Scince (1)
- IoP (1)

In this work, 2-dimensional measurements in the THz frequency range with self-made spintronic THz emitters were presented. The STE were used to optimize the spatial resolution and determine the magnetization in geometric shapes. At the beginning, various combinations of FM and NM layers were produced and measured to achieve an optimal composition of the STE. The layer thickness of the ferromagnetic CoFeB layer and the nonmagnetic PT layer was also varied. The investigations have shown that a layer combination of 2 nm thick CoFeB and 2 nm thick Pt, applied to a fused silica glass substrate and covered with a 300 nm thick SiO2 layer, emits the highest THz amplitude. Based on these, a structured sample, consisting of an STE and an additional layer system of 5 nm Cr and 100 nm Au, was produced. Further, three wedge-shaped structures were removed from the gold layer by an etching process so that the THz radiation generated by the STE can pass through these areas. This enables the optimization of the resolution of the system. For this purpose, the sample was moved perpendicular to the laser beam by two stepping motors with a step size of 5 μm and imaged 2-dimensionally. By reducing the step size to 0.2 μm, the beam diameter could be measured at the edge of the structure using the knife-edge method. Based on this measurement, the resolution of the system could be determined as 5.1 ± 0.5 μm at 0.5 THz, 4.9 ± 0.4 μm at 1 THz, and 5.0 ± 0.5 μm at 1.5 THz. These results are confirmed by simulations considering the propagation of THz wave packets through the SiO2. The expansion of the FWHM of the waves, passing through the 300 nm thick layer, is about 1%. Only a SiO2 layer with a thickness in the μm range occurs an expansion of around 10%. This shows that it is possible to perform 2-dimensional THz spectroscopy with a resolution in the dimension of the exciting laser beam by using near-field optics. Afterward, the achieved spatial resolution was used to investigate the influence of external magnetic fields on the STE and the emitted THz radiation. By implementing a pair of coils above the sample, an external magnetic field could be applied parallel to the pattern. The used sample was designed in such a way that only certain geometric areas on the fused silica glass substrate were coated with an STE so that THz radiation is emitted only in those areas. The 2-dimensional images show the geometric structures for f = 1.0 THz and f = 1.5 THz clearly. By applying a permanent, positive magnetic field (+M), a positive course of the THz amplitude can be seen. A rotation of the magnetic field by 180° (-M) leads to a reversal of the orientation of the emitted THz radiation, whereby the magnetic field does not influence the corresponding frequency spectrum. By using minor loops, the sample was demagnetized by the constant reduction of the magnetic field strength with alternating magnetic field direction. The 2-dimensional representation of the pattern with a step size of 10 μm shows that the sample was demagnetized since both, positively and negatively magnetized structures, could be imaged. In addition, in the 2nd row from the top, a completely demagnetized circle and a rectangle with a division into two domains can be seen. These structures have both positive and negative magnetized areas, which are separated by a domain wall. To investigate this in more detail a 2-dimensional measurement of the divided regions was made with a step size of 2.5 μm. These images confirm the division of the structures into positive and negative domains, separated by a domain wall, which was verified by Kerr-microscope measurements. Both data show a similar course of the domains and the domain wall. However, to be able to examine the domain wall more precisely using 2-dimensional THz spectroscopy, the resolution of the system must be improved to a range of a few nm, because the expected domain wall width is between 𝑙𝑊 = 12.56 nm and 𝑙𝑊 = 125.6 nm. The improved resolution would make it possible to image foreign objects, such as microplastics in biological cells or tissue. For this purpose, different plastics, such as polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene, were investigated in the THz frequency range up to 4 THz. While no specific absorption could be determined for PP, characteristic absorption peaks were found for PE and PS. The energy of the photons with a frequency of about 2.2 THz excites lattice vibrations in the PE. Therefore, this frequency is specifically absorbed, and the intensity in the transmission spectrum is lower than for other frequencies. PS absorbs especially THz radiation with a frequency of 3.2 THz. In addition, all of the investigated plastics are mostly transparent for THz radiation, which makes imaging of these materials feasible. Based on these basic properties, it will be possible to image and identify these types of plastic.

A novel method for time-resolved tuned diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been developed. In this paper, we describe in detail developed electronic module that controls time-resolution of laser absorption spectroscopy system. The TTL signal triggering plasma pulse is used for generation of two signals: the first one triggers the fine tuning of laser wavelength and second one controls time-defined signal sampling from absorption detector. The described method and electronic system enable us to investigate temporal evolution of sputtered particles in technological low-temperature plasma systems. The pulsed DC planar magnetron sputtering system has been used to verify this method. The 2" in diameter titanium target was sputtered in pure argon atmosphere. The working pressure was held at 2 Pa. All the experiments were carried out for pulse ON time fixed at 100 (is. When changing OFF time the discharge has operated between High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering regime and pulsed DC magnetron regime. The effect of duty cycle variation results in decrease of titanium atom density during ON time while length of OFF time elongates. We believe that observed effect is connected with higher degree of ionization of sputtered particles. As previously reported by Bohlmark et al., the measured optical emission spectra in HiPIMS systems were dominated by emission from titanium ions [1].

Application of quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy to studies of fluorocarbon molecules
(2009)

The recent advent of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) enables room-temperature mid-infrared spectrometer operation which is particularly favourable for industrial process monitoring and control, i.e. the detection of transient and stable molecular species. Conversely, fluorocarbon containing radio-frequency discharges are of special interest for plasma etching and deposition as well as for fundamental studies on gas phase and plasma surface reactions. The application of QCL absorption spectroscopy to such low pressure plasmas is typically hampered by non-linear effects connected with the pulsed mode of the lasers. Nevertheless, adequate calibration can eliminate such effects, especially in the case of complex spectra where single line parameters are not available. In order to facilitate measurements in fluorocarbon plasmas, studies on complex spectra of CF4 and C3F8 at 7.86 μm (1269 – 1275 cm-1) under low pressure conditions have been performed. The intra-pulse mode, i.e. pulses of up to 300 ns, was applied yielding highly resolved spectral scans of ∼ 1 cm-1 coverage. Effective absorption cross sections were determined and their temperature dependence was studied in the relevant range up to 400 K and found to be non-negligible.

Fluorocarbon containing capacitively coupled radio frequency (cc-rf) plasmas are widely used in technical applications and as model systems for fundamental investigations of complex plasmas. Absorption spectroscopy based on pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCL) was applied in the mid-IR spectral range of 1269-1275 cm-1. Absolute densities of the precursor molecule CF4 and of the stable product C3F8 were measured with a time resolution of up to 1 ms in pulsed CF4/H2 asymmetrical cc-rf (13.56 MHz) discharges. For this purpose both the non-negligible temperature dependence of the absorption coefficients and the interference of the absorption features of CF4 and C3F8 had to be taken into account in the target spectral range. Therefore, at two different spectral positions composite absorption spectra were acquired under the same plasma conditions in order to discriminate between CF4 and C3F8 contributions. A total consumption of∼ 12 % was observed for CF4 during a 1 s plasma pulse, whereas C3F8 appeared to be produced mainly from amorphous fluorocarbon layers deposited at the reactor walls. A gas temperature increase by ∼ 100 K in the plasma pulse was estimated from the measurements. Additionally, not yet identified unresolved absorption (potentially from the excited CF4 molecule) was found during the àon-phase'.

We present a Green's function based treatment of the effects of electron-phonon coupling on transport through a molecular quantum dot in the quantum limit. Thereby we combine an incomplete variational Lang-Firsov approach with a perturbative calculation of the electron-phonon self energy in the framework of generalised Matsubara Green functions and a Landauer-type transport description. Calculating the ground-state energy, the dot single-particle spectral function and the linear conductance at finite carrier density, we study the low-temperature transport properties of the vibrating quantum dot sandwiched between metallic leads in the whole electron-phonon coupling strength regime. We discuss corrections to the concept of an anti-adiabatic dot polaron and show how a deformable quantum dot can act as a molecular switch.

In classical Drude theory the conductivity is determined by the mass of the propagating particles and the mean free path between two scattering events. For a quantum particle this simple picture of diffusive transport loses relevance if strong correlations dominate the particle motion. We study a situation where the propagation of a fermionic particle is possible only through creation and annihilation of local bosonic excitations. This correlated quantum transport process is outside the Drude picture, since one cannot distinguish between free propagation and intermittent scattering. The characterization of transport is possible using the Drude weight obtained from the f-sum rule, although its interpretation in terms of free mass and mean free path breaks down. For the situation studied we calculate the Green's function and Drude weight using a Green's functions expansion technique, and discuss their physical meaning.

A quantum kinetic approach is presented to investigate the energy relaxation of dense strongly coupled two-temperature plasmas. We derive a balance equation for the mean total energy of a plasma species including a quite general expression for the transfer rate. An approximation scheme is used leading to an expression of the transfer rates for systems with coupled modes relevant for the warm dense matter regime. The theory is then applied to dense beryllium plasmas under conditions such as realized in recent experiments. Special attention is paid to the influence of correlation and quantum effects on the relaxation process.

In order to clarify the physics of the crossover from a spin-density-wave (SDW) Mott insulator to a charge-density-wave (CDW) Peierls insulator in one-dimensional (1D) systems, we investigate the Hubbard-Holstein Hamiltonian at half filling within a density matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) approach. Determining the spin and charge correlation exponents, the momentum distribution function, and various excitation gaps, we confirm that an intervening metallic phase expands the SDW-CDW transition in the weak-coupling regime.

We discuss a numerical method to study electron transport in mesoscopic devices out of equilibrium. The method is based on the solution of operator equations of motion, using efficient Chebyshev time propagation techniques. Its peculiar feature is the propagation of operators backwards in time. In this way the resource consumption scales linearly with the number of states used to represent the system. This allows us to calculate the current for non-interacting electrons in large one-, two- and three-dimensional lead-device configurations with time-dependent voltages or potentials. We discuss the technical aspects of the method and present results for an electron pump device and a disordered system, where we find transient behaviour that exists for a very long time and may be accessible to experiments.

A research of the temperature effect of the muon cosmic ray (CR) component on the MuSTAnG super telescope data (Greifswald, Germany) for the whole period of its work (from 2007) was carried out. The primary hourly telescope's data were corrected for the temperature effect, using vertical temperature atmospheric profile at the standard isobaric levels obtained from the GFS model. To estimate the model accuracy and applicability the air sounding data for some years were used.