## 52.30.Gz Gyrokinetics

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#### Keywords

- Fusion (2)
- Plasmaphysik (2)
- AlfvÃ©n-Welle (1)
- Energiereiches Teilchen (1)
- Magnetische Rekonnektion (1)
- Magnetohydrodynamik (1)
- Stellarator (1)

The collisionless tearing mode is investigated by means of the delta-f PIC code EUTERPE solving the gyrokinetic equation. In this thesis the first simulations of electromagnetic non-ideal MHD modes in a slab geometry with EUTERPE are presented. Linear simulations are carried out in the cases of vanishing and finite temperature gradients. Both cases are benchmarked using a shooting method showing that EUTERPE simulates the linearly unstable tearing mode to a very high accuracy. In the case of finite diamagnetic effects and values of the linear stability parameter Delta of order unity analytic predictions of the linear dispersion relation are compared with simulation results. The comparison validates the analytic results in this parameter range. Nonlinear single-mode simulations are performed in the small- to medium-Delta range measuring the dependency of the saturated island half width on the equilibrium current width. The results are compared with an analytic prediction obtained with a kinetic electromagnetic model. In this thesis the first simulation results in the regime of fast nonlinear reconnection~(medium- to high-Delta range) are presented using the standard gyrokinetic equation. In this regime a nonlinear critical threshold has been found dividing the saturated mode from the super-exponential phase for medium-Delta values. This critical threshold has been proven to occur in two slab equilibria frequently used for reconnection scenarios. Either changing the width of the equilibrium current or the wave number of the most unstable mode makes the threshold apparent. Extensive parameter studies including the variation of the domain extensions as well as the equilibrium current width are dedicated to a comprehensive overview of the critical threshold in a wide range of parameters. Additionally, a second critical threshold for high-Delta equilibria has been observed. A detailed comparison between a compressible gyrofluid code and EUTERPE is carried out. The two models are compared with each other in the linear regime by measuring growth rates over wave numbers of the most unstable mode for two setups of parameters. Analytical scaling predictions of the dispersion relation relevant to the low-Delta regime are discussed. Employing nonlinear simulations of both codes the saturated island half width and oscillation frequency of the magnetic islands are compared in the small-Delta range. Both models agree very well in the limit of marginal instability and differ slightly with decreasing wave vector. Recently, the full polarisation response in the quasi-neutrality equation was implemented in EUTERPE using the PadÃ© approximation of the full gyrokinetic polarisation term. Linear simulation results including finite ratios of ion to electron temperature are benchmarked with the dispersion relation obtained from a hybrid model. Finite temperature effects influence the saturated island width slightly with increasing ion to electron temperature ratio which has been verified by both models.

There is a wide variety of AlfvÃ©n waves in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. While most of them are damped, some of the global eigenmodes can be driven unstable when they interact with energetic particles. By coupling the MHD code CKA with the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE, a hybrid kinetic-MHD model is created to describe this waveâ€“particle interaction in stellarator geometry. In this thesis, the CKA-EUTERPE code package is presented. This numerical tool can be used for linear perturbative stability analysis of AlfvÃ©n waves in the presence of energetic particles. The equations for the hybrid model are based on the gyrokinetic equations. The fast particles are described with linearized gyrokinetic equations. The reduced MHD equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the gyrokinetic equations. An equation for describing the AlfvÃ©n waves is derived by combining the reduced MHD equations. The AlfvÃ©n wave equation can retain kinetic corrections. Considering the energy transfer between the particles and the waves, the stability of the waves can be calculated. Numerically, the AlfvÃ©n waves are calculated using the CKA code. The equations are solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the frequency spectrum and the mode structure of the waves. The results of the MHD model are in good agreement with other sophisticated MHD codes. CKA results are shown for a JET and a W7-AS example. The linear version of the EUTERPE code is used to study the motion of energetic particles in the wavefield with fixed spatial structure, and harmonic oscillations in time. In EUTERPE, the gyrokinetic equations are discretized with a PIC scheme using the delta-f method, and both full orbit width and finite Larmor radius effects are included. The code is modified to be able to use the wavefield calculated externally by CKA. Different slowing-down distribution functions are also implemented. The work done by the electric field on the particles is measured to calculate the energy transfer between the particles and the wave and from that the growth rate is determined. The advantage of this approach is that the full magnetic geometry is retained without any limiting assumptions on guiding center orbits. Extensive benchmarks have been performed to test the new CKA-EUTERPE code. Three tokamak benchmarks are presented, where the stability of TAE modes are studied as a function of fast particle energy, or in one case as a function of the fast particle charge. The benchmarks show good agreement with other codes. Stellarator calculations were performed for Wendelstein 7-AS and the results demonstrate that the finite orbit width effects tend to be strongly stabilizing.