## 52.55.Hc Stellarators, torsatrons, heliacs, bumpy tori, and other toroidal confinement devices

### Refine

#### Keywords

- Plasmaphysik (2)
- AlfvÃ©n-Welle (1)
- Energiereiches Teilchen (1)
- Fusion (1)
- Fusion plasmas (1)
- Fusionsplasma (1)
- Impurities (1)
- Kinetic Transport Theory (1)
- Kinetische Transporttheorie (1)
- Stellarator (1)

There is a wide variety of AlfvÃ©n waves in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. While most of them are damped, some of the global eigenmodes can be driven unstable when they interact with energetic particles. By coupling the MHD code CKA with the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE, a hybrid kinetic-MHD model is created to describe this waveâ€“particle interaction in stellarator geometry. In this thesis, the CKA-EUTERPE code package is presented. This numerical tool can be used for linear perturbative stability analysis of AlfvÃ©n waves in the presence of energetic particles. The equations for the hybrid model are based on the gyrokinetic equations. The fast particles are described with linearized gyrokinetic equations. The reduced MHD equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the gyrokinetic equations. An equation for describing the AlfvÃ©n waves is derived by combining the reduced MHD equations. The AlfvÃ©n wave equation can retain kinetic corrections. Considering the energy transfer between the particles and the waves, the stability of the waves can be calculated. Numerically, the AlfvÃ©n waves are calculated using the CKA code. The equations are solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the frequency spectrum and the mode structure of the waves. The results of the MHD model are in good agreement with other sophisticated MHD codes. CKA results are shown for a JET and a W7-AS example. The linear version of the EUTERPE code is used to study the motion of energetic particles in the wavefield with fixed spatial structure, and harmonic oscillations in time. In EUTERPE, the gyrokinetic equations are discretized with a PIC scheme using the delta-f method, and both full orbit width and finite Larmor radius effects are included. The code is modified to be able to use the wavefield calculated externally by CKA. Different slowing-down distribution functions are also implemented. The work done by the electric field on the particles is measured to calculate the energy transfer between the particles and the wave and from that the growth rate is determined. The advantage of this approach is that the full magnetic geometry is retained without any limiting assumptions on guiding center orbits. Extensive benchmarks have been performed to test the new CKA-EUTERPE code. Three tokamak benchmarks are presented, where the stability of TAE modes are studied as a function of fast particle energy, or in one case as a function of the fast particle charge. The benchmarks show good agreement with other codes. Stellarator calculations were performed for Wendelstein 7-AS and the results demonstrate that the finite orbit width effects tend to be strongly stabilizing.

Impurity ions pose a potentially serious threat to fusion plasma performance by affecting the confinement in various, usually deleterious, ways. Due to the creation of helium ash during fusion reactions and the interaction of the plasma with the wall components, which makes it possible for heavy ions to penetrate into the core plasma, impurities can intrinsically not be avoided. Therefore, it is essential to study their behaviour in the fusion plasma in detail. Within the framework of this thesis, different problems arising in connection with impurities have been investigated. 1. Collisional damping of zonal flows in tokamkas: The effect of impurities on the collisional damping of zonal flows is investigated. Since the Coulomb collision frequency increases with increasing ion charge, heavy, highly charged impurities play an important role in this process. The effect of such impurities on the linear response of the plasma to an external potential perturbation, as caused by zonal flows, is calculated with analytical methods and compared with numerical simulations, resulting in good agreement. 2. Impurity transport driven by microturbulence in tokamaks: Fine scale turbulence driven by microinstabilities is a source of particle and heat transport in a fusion reactor. A semi-analytical model is presented describing the resulting impurity fluxes and the stability boundary of the underlying mode. The results are compared with numerical simulations. Both the impurity flux and the stability boundary are found to depend strongly on the plasma parameters such as the impurity density and the temperature gradient. 3. Pfirsch-SchlÃ¼ter transport in stellarators: Due to geometry effects, collisional transport plays a much more prominent role in stellarators than in tokamaks. Analytical expressions for the particle and heat fluxes in an impure, collisional plasma are derived from first principles. Contrary to the tokamak case, where collisional transport is exclusively caused directly by friction, in stellarators an additional source of transport exists, namely pressure anisotropy. Since this term is, contrary to the contribution from friction, non-ambipolar, it plays an important role regarding the ambipolar electric field. Furthermore, the behaviour of heavy impurities in the presence of strong radial temperature and density gradients is studied, which lead to a redistribution of the impurities on the flux surfaces. As a consequence, the radial impurity flux is decreased considerably compared with a plasma in which the impurities are evenly distributed on the flux surfaces.