## 510 Mathematik

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Diese Dissertation untersucht Zusammenhänge der spieltheoretischen Begriffe des Nash- und Stackelberg-Gleichgewichts in Differenialspielen im N-Spieler-Fall. Weiterhin werden drei verschiedene Lösungskonzepte für das Finden von Gleichgewichten in 2-Spieler-Differentialspielen vorgestellt. Direkte Methoden aus der nichtlinearen Optimierung, der globalen Optimierung und der optimalen Steuerung werden verwendet, um Nash- und Stackelberg-Gleichgewichte in 2-Spieler-Differentialspielen zu finden. Anhand von Anwendungsbeispielen werden die Methoden getestet, analysiert und ausgewertet. Eine Erweiterung des Verfolgungsspiels von Isaacs auf Beschleunigungskomponenten wird betrachtet. Ein bisher unbekanntes Stackelberg-Gleichgewicht wird im Kapitalismusspiel nach Lancaster numerisch berechnet. Zuletzt wird ein Problem aus der Fischerei modelliert und anhand der eingeführten Methoden gelöst.

Twisted topological K-theory is a twisted version of topological K-theory in the sense of twisted generalized cohomology theories. It was pioneered by Donavan and Karoubi in 1970 where they used bundles of central simple graded algebras to model twists of K-theory. By the end of the last century physicists realised that D-brane charges in the field of string theory may be studied in terms of twisted K-theory. This rekindled interest in the topic lead to a wave of new models for the twists and new ways to realize the respective twisted K-theory groups. The state-of-the-art models today use bundles of projective unitary operators on separable Hilbert spaces as twists and K-groups are modeled by homotopy classes of sections of certain bundles of Fredholm operators. From a physics perspective these treatments are not optimal yet: they are intrinsically infinite-dimensional and these models do not immediately allow the inclusion of differential data like forms and connections.
In this thesis we introduce the 2-stack of k-algebra gerbes. Objects, 1-morphisms and 2-morphisms consist of finite-dimensional geometric data simultaneously generalizing bundle gerbes and bundles of central simple graded k-algebras for k either the field of real numbers or the field of complex numbers. We construct an explicit isomorphism from equivalence classes of k-algebra gerbes over a space X to the full set of twists of real K-theory and complex K-theory respectively. Further, we model relative twisted K-groups for compact spaces X and closed subspaces Y twisted by algebra gerbes. These groups are modeled directly in terms of 1-morphisms and 2-morphisms of algebra gerbes over X. We exhibit a relation to the K-groups introduced by Donavan and Karoubi and we translate their fundamental isomorphism -- an isomorphism relating K-groups over Thom spaces with K-groups twisted by Clifford algebra bundles -- to the new setting. With the help of this fundamental isomorphism we construct an explicit Thom isomorphism and explicit pushforward homomorphisms for smooth maps between compact manifolds, without requiring these maps to be K-oriented. Further -- in order to treat K-groups for non-torsion twists -- we implement a geometric cocycle model, inspired by a related geometric cycle model developed by Baum and Douglas for K-homology in 1982, and construct an assembly map for this model.

A common task in natural sciences is to
describe, characterize, and infer relations between discrete
objects. A set of relations E on a set of objects V can
naturally be expressed as a graph G = (V, E). It is
therefore often convenient to formalize problems in natural
sciences as graph theoretical problems.
In this thesis we will examine a number of problems found in
life sciences in particular, and show how to use graph theoretical
concepts to formalize and solve the presented problems. The
content of the thesis is a collection of papers all
solving separate problems that are relevant to biology
or biochemistry.
The first paper examines problems found in self-assembling
protein design. Designing polypeptides, composed of concatenated
coiled coil units, to fold into polyhedra turns out
to be intimately related to the concept of 1-face embeddings in
graph topology. We show that 1-face embeddings can be
canonicalized in linear time and present algorithms to enumerate
pairwise non-isomorphic 1-face embeddings in orientable surfaces.
The second and third paper examine problems found in evolutionary
biology. In particular, they focus on
inferring gene and species trees directly from sequence data
without any a priori knowledge of the trees topology. The second
paper characterize when gene trees can be inferred from
estimates of orthology, paralogy and xenology relations when only
partial information is available. Using this characterization an
algorithm is presented that constructs a gene tree consistent
with the estimates in polynomial time, if one exists. The
shown algorithm is used to experimentally show that gene trees
can be accurately inferred even in the case that only 20$\%$ of
the relations are known. The third paper explores how to
reconcile a gene tree with a species tree in a biologically
feasible way, when the events of the gene tree are known.
Biologically feasible reconciliations are characterized using
only the topology of the gene and species tree. Using this
characterization an algorithm is shown that constructs a
biologically feasible reconciliation in polynomial time, if one
exists.
The fourth and fifth paper are concerned with with the analysis
of automatically generated reaction networks. The fourth paper
introduces an algorithm to predict thermodynamic properties of
compounds in a chemistry. The algorithm is based on
the well known group contribution methods and will automatically
infer functional groups based on common structural motifs found
in a set of sampled compounds. It is shown experimentally that
the algorithm can be used to accurately
predict a variety of molecular properties such as normal boiling
point, Gibbs free energy, and the minimum free energy of RNA
secondary structures. The fifth and final paper presents a
framework to track atoms through reaction networks generated by a
graph grammar. Using concepts found in semigroup theory, the
paper defines the characteristic monoid of a reaction network. It
goes on to show how natural subsystems of a reaction network organically
emerge from the right Cayley graph of said monoid. The
applicability of the framework is proven by applying it to the
design of isotopic labeling experiments as well as to the
analysis of the TCA cycle.

Mathematical phylogenetics provides the theoretical framework for the reconstruction and analysis of phylogenetic trees and networks. The underlying theory is based on various mathematical disciplines, ranging from graph theory to probability theory.
In this thesis, we take a mostly combinatorial and graph-theoretical position and study different problems concerning phylogenetic trees and networks.
We start by considering phylogenetic diversity indices that rank species for conservation. Two such indices for rooted trees are the Fair Proportion index and the Equal Splits index, and we analyze how different they can be from each other and under which circumstances they coincide. Moreover, we define and investigate analogues of these indices for unrooted trees.
Subsequently, we study the Shapley value of unrooted trees, another popular phylogenetic diversity index. We show that it may fail as a prioritization criterion in biodiversity conservation and is outcompeted by an existing greedy approach. Afterwards, we leave the biodiversity setting and consider the Shapley value as a tree reconstruction tool. Here, we show that non-isomorphic trees may have permutation-equivalent Shapley transformation matrices and identical Shapley values, implying that the Shapley value cannot reliably be employed in tree reconstruction.
In addition to phylogenetic diversity indices, another class of indices frequently discussed in mathematical phylogenetics, is the class of balance indices. In this thesis, we study one of the oldest and most popular of them, namely the Colless index for rooted binary trees. We focus on its extremal values and analyze both its maximum and minimum values as well as the trees that achieve them.
Having analyzed various questions regarding phylogenetic trees, we finally turn to phylogenetic networks. We focus on a certain class of phylogenetic networks, namely tree-based networks, and consider this class both in a rooted and in an unrooted setting.
First, we prove the existence of a rooted non-binary universal tree-based network with n leaves for all positive integers n, that is, we show that there exists a rooted non-binary tree-based network with $n$ leaves that has every non-binary phylogenetic tree on the same leaf set as a base tree.
Finally, we study unrooted tree-based networks and introduce a class of networks that are necessarily tree-based, namely edge-based networks. We show that edge-based networks are closely related to a family of graphs in classical graph theory, so-called generalized series-parallel graphs, and explore this relationship in full detail.
In summary, we add new insights into existing concepts in mathematical phylogenetics, answer open questions in the literature, and introduce new concepts and approaches. In doing so, we make a small but relevant contribution to current research in mathematical phylogenetics.

Given a manifold with a string structure, we construct a spinor bundle on its loop space. Our construction is in analogy with the usual construction of a spinor bundle on a spin manifold, but necessarily makes use of tools from infinite dimensional geometry. We equip this spinor bundle on loop space with an action of a bundle of Clifford algebras. Given two smooth loops in our string manifold that share a segment, we can construct a third loop by deleting this segment. If this third loop is smooth, then we say that the original pair of loops is a pair of compatible loops. It is well-known that this operation of fusing compatible loops is important if one wants to understand the geometry of a manifold through its loop space. In this work, we explain in detail how the spinor bundle on loop space behaves with respect to fusion of compatible loops. To wit, we construct a family of fusion isomorphisms indexed by pairs of compatible loops in our string manifold. Each of these fusion isomorphisms is an isomorphism from the relative tensor product of the fibres of the spinor bundle over its index pair of compatible loops to the fibre over the loop that is the result of fusing the index pair. The construction of a spinor bundle on loop space equipped with a fusion product as above was proposed by Stolz and Teichner with the goal of studying the Dirac operator on loop space". Our construction combines facets of the theory of bimodules for von Neumann algebras, infinite dimensional manifolds, and Lie groups and their representations. We moreover place our spinor bundle on loop space in the context of bundle gerbes and bundle gerbe modules.

In phylogenetics, evolutionary relationships of different species are represented by phylogenetic trees.
In this thesis, we are mainly concerned with the reconstruction of ancestral sequences and the accuracy of this reconstruction given a rooted binary phylogenetic tree.
For example, we wish to estimate the DNA sequences of the ancestors given the observed DNA sequences of today living species.
In particular, we are interested in reconstructing the DNA sequence of the last common ancestor of all species under consideration. Note that this last common ancestor corresponds to the root of the tree.
There exist various methods for the reconstruction of ancestral sequences.
A widely used principle for ancestral sequence reconstruction is the principle of parsimony (Maximum Parsimony).
This principle means that the simplest explanation it the best.
Applied to the reconstruction of ancestral sequences this means that a sequence which requires the fewest evolutionary changes along the tree is reconstructed.
Thus, the number of changes is minimized, which explains the name of Maximum Parsimony.
Instead of estimating a whole DNA sequence, Maximum Parsimony considers each position in the sequence separately. Thus in the following, each sequence position is regarded separately, and we call a single position in a sequence state.
It can happen that the state of the last common ancestor is reconstructed unambiguously, for example as A. On the other hand, Maximum Parsimony might be indecisive between two DNA nucleotides, say for example A and C.
In this case, the last common ancestor will be reconstructed as {A,C}.
Therefore we consider, after an introduction and some preliminary definitions, the following question in Section 3: how many present-day species need to be in a certain state, for example A, such that the Maximum Parsimony estimate of the last common ancestor is also {A}?
The answer of this question depends on the tree topology as well as on the number of different states.
In Section 4, we provide a sufficient condition for Maximum Parsimony to recover the ancestral state at the root correctly from the observed states at the leaves.
The so-called reconstruction accuracy for the reconstruction of ancestral states is introduced in Section 5. The reconstruction accuracy is the probability that the true root state is indeed reconstructed and always takes two processes into account: on the one hand the approach to reconstruct ancestral states, and on the other hand the way how the states evolve along the edges of the tree. The latter is given by an evolutionary model.
In the present thesis, we focus on a simple symmetric model, the Neyman model.
The symmetry of the model means for example that a change from A to C is equally likely than a change from C to A.
Intuitively, one could expect that the reconstruction accuracy it the highest when all present-day species are taken into account. However, it has long been known that the reconstruction accuracy improves when some taxa are disregarded for the estimation.
Therefore, the question if there exits at least a lower bound for the reconstruction accuracy arises, i.e. if it is best to consider all today living species instead of just one for the reconstruction.
This is bad news for Maximum Parsimony as a criterion for ancestral state reconstruction, and therefore the question if there exists at least a lower bound for the reconstruction accuracy arises.
In Section 5, we start with considering ultrametric trees, which are trees where the expected number of substitutions from the root to each leaf is the same.
For such trees, we investigate a lower bound for the reconstruction accuracy, when the number of different states at the leaves of the tree is 3 or 4.
Subsequently in Section 6, in order to generalize this result, we introduce a new method for ancestral state reconstruction: the coin-toss method.
We obtain new results for the reconstruction accuracy of Maximum Parsimony by relating Maximum Parsimony to the coin-toss method.
Some of these results do not require the underlying tree to be ultrametric.
Then, in Section 7 we investigate the influence of specific tree topologies on the reconstruction accuracy of Maximum Parsimony. In particular, we consider balanced and imbalanced trees as the balance of a tree may have an influence on the reconstruction accuracy.
We end by introducing the Colless index in Section 8, an index which measures the degree of balance a rooted binary tree can have, and analyze its extremal properties.

Objektive Eingruppierung sequenzierter Tollwutisolate mithilfe des Affinity Propagation Clusterings.
(2018)

Das International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) reguliert die Nomenklatur von Viren sowie die Entstehung neuer Taxa (dazu gehören: Ordnung, Familie, Unterfamilie, Gattung und Art/Spezies). Dank dieser Anstrengungen ist die Einteilung für verschiedenste Viren in diese Kategorien klar und transparent nachvollziehbar. In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten sind insgesamt mehr als 21.000 Datensätze der Spezies „rabies lyssavirus“ (RABV) sequenziert worden. Eine weiterführende Unterteilung der sequenzierten Virusisolate dieser Spezies ist bislang jedoch nicht einheitlich vorgeschlagen. Die große Anzahl an sequenzierten Isolaten führte auf Basis von phylogenetischen Bäumen zu uneindeutigen Ergebnissen bei der Einteilung in Cluster. Inhalt meiner Dissertation ist daher ein Vorschlag, diese Problematik mit der Anwendung einer partitionierenden Clusteringmethode zu lösen. Dazu habe ich erstmals die Methodik des affinity propagation clustering (AP) für solche Fragestellungen eingesetzt. Als Datensatz wurden alle verfügbaren sequenzierten Vollgenomisolate der Spezies RABV analysiert. Die Analysen des Datensatzes ergaben vier Hauptcluster, die sich geographisch separieren ließen und entsprechend als „Arctic“, „Cosmopolitain“, „Asian“ und „New World“ bezeichnet wurden. Weiterführende Analysen erlaubten auch eine weitere Aufteilung dieser Hauptcluster in 12-13 Untercluster. Zusätzlich konnte ich einen Workflow generieren, der die Möglichkeit bietet, die mittels AP definierten Cluster mit den Ergebnissen der phylogenetischen Auswertungen zu kombinieren. Somit lassen sich sowohl Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse erkennen als auch eine objektive Clustereinteilung vornehmen. Dies könnte auch ein möglicher Analyseweg für weitere Virusspezies oder andere vergleichende Sequenzanalysen sein.

As the tree of life is populated with sequenced genomes ever more densely, the new challenge is the accurate and consistent annotation of entire clades of genomes. In my dissertation, I address this problem with a new approach to comparative gene finding that takes a multiple genome alignment of closely related species and simultaneously predicts the location and structure of protein-coding genes in all input genomes, thereby exploiting negative selection and sequence conservation. The model prefers potential gene structures in the different genomes that are in agreement with each other, or—if not—where the exon gains and losses are plausible given the species tree. The multi-species gene finding problem is formulated as a binary labeling problem on a graph. The resulting optimization problem is NP hard, but can be efficiently approximated using a subgradient-based dual decomposition approach.
I tested the novel approach on whole-genome alignments of 12 vertebrate and 12 Drosophila species. The accuracy was evaluated for human, mouse and Drosophila melanogaster and compared to competing methods. Results suggest that the new method is well-suited for annotation of a large number of genomes of closely related species within a clade, in particular, when RNA-Seq data are available for many of the genomes. The transfer of existing annotations from one genome to another via the genome alignment is more accurate than previous approaches that are based on protein-spliced alignments, when the genomes are at close to medium distances. The method is implemented in C++ as part of the gene finder AUGUSTUS.

The intracellular life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is modelled using ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Model parameters are obtained from the literature or fitted to experimental data using parameter estimation procedures. Key steps in the life cycle are inhibited singly and in combination to show the effects on viral replication. The results validate the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and in addition DNA nuclear import is identified as a novel influential therapeutic target.

Die vorliegende Arbeit ist im Bereich der parameterfreien Statistik anzusiedeln und beschäftigt sich mit der Anwendung von ordinalen Verfahren auf Zeitreihen und Bilddaten. Die Basis bilden dabei die sogenannten ordinalen Muster in ein bzw. zwei Dimensionen. Der erste Hauptteil der Arbeit gibt einen Überblick über die breiten Einsatzmöglichkeiten ordinaler Muster in der Zeitreihenanalyse. Mit ihrer Hilfe wird bei simulierten gebrochenen Brownschen Bewegungen der Hurst-Exponenten geschätzt und anhand von EEG-Daten eine Klassifikationsaufgabe gelöst. Des Weiteren wird die auf der Verteilung der ordinalen Muster beruhende Permutationsentropie eingesetzt, um in Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT)-Ruhedaten Kopfbewegungen der Probanden zu detektieren. Der zweite Hauptteil der Arbeit befasst sich mit der Erweiterung der ordinalen Muster auf zwei Dimensionen, um sie für Bilddaten nutzbar zu machen. Nach einigen Betrachtungen an fraktalen Oberflächen steht eine automatisierte und robuste Einschätzung der Qualität struktureller MRT-Daten im Vordergrund.