## Doctoral Thesis

The present thesis deals with dynamic structures that form during the expansion of plasma into an environment of much lower plasma density. The electron expansion, driven by their pressure, occurs on a much faster time scale than the ion expansion, owed to their mobility. The high inertia of the ions causes the generation of an ambipolar electric field that decelerates the escaping electrons while accelerating the ions. The ambipolar boundary propagates outwards and forms a plasma density front. For a small density differences, the propagation of the front can be described with the linear ansatz for ion acoustic waves. For a large density differences, experiments have shown that the propagation velocity of such a front is still related to the ion sound velocity. However, the reported proportionality factors are scattered over a wide range of values, depending on the considered initial and boundary conditions. In this thesis, the dynamics during plasma expansion are studied with the use of experiments and a versatile particle-in-cell simulation. The experimental investigations are performed in the linear helicon device Piglet. The experiment features a fast valve, which is used to shape the neutral gas density profile. During the pulsed rf-discharges, plasma is generated in the source region and expands collisionless into the expansion chamber. The computer simulation is tailored very close to the experiment and provides a deeper insight in the particle kinetics. The experimental results show the existence of a propagating ion front. Its velocity is typically supersonic and depends on the density ratio of the two plasmas. The ion front features a strong electric field. The front can have similar properties to a double layer is not necessarily a double layer by definition. The computer simulation reveals that the propagating electric field repels the downstream ambient ions. These ions form a stream with velocities up to twice as high as the front velocity. The observed ion density peak is due to the accumulation of the repelled ions and is located at their turning point. The ion front formation depends strongly on the initial ion density profile and is part of a wave-breaking phenomenon. The observed front is followed by a plateau of little plasma density variation. This could be confirmed for the expansion experiment by a comparison with virtual diagnostics in the computer simulation. The plateau has a plasma density determined by the ratio between the high and low plasma density. It consists of streaming ions that have been accelerated in the edge of the main plasma. The presented results confirm and extend findings obtained by independent numerical models and simulations.

During the past decade, various physical properties of the Yukawa ball, like structure and energy states, were unraveled using experiments. However, the dynamical features served further attention. Therefore, the main aim of my thesis was to investigate and understand how a finite system-represented by Yukawa clusters-evolves from a solid, crystalline structure to a liquid-like system, how it behaves in this phase and in what manner the reordering back into the solid state can be described. As a method of choice to reach this goal, laser heating has been proven successful. Moreover, the special importance of wakefields for dust clusters confined at low neutral gas pressure was addressed. Melting of finite dust clouds can be induced in two ways, either by altering the properties of the ambient plasma or by laser heating. The latter was shown to be a generic melting scenario, allowing to estimate a critical coupling parameter at the melting point. Moreover, the melting transition of finite 3D dust systems was found to be a two-step process where angular order is lost before the radial order starts to diminish at higher energies. Next, the mode dynamics of finite 3D dust ensembles in the solid and the liquid phase was studied. Crystal and fluid modes revealed the main spectral properties of the system. The normal modes are mainly suited to describe crystalline states. Fluid modes were excited naturally and via laser heating, with excitation frequencies almost independent of the coupling parameter in the solid and the liquid-like regime. Tuning the plasma parameters can be used to vary the particle-particle interaction via the ion focus. Both methods, even though assuming equilibrium situations, allowed to hint at these wakefields. The corresponding peaks in the fluid and normal mode spectra were no eigenmodes, confirming the nonequilibrium character of the ion focusing effect. First steps to extend the normal mode theory to achieve the dynamics of wake-affected nonequilibrium dust clusters were presented. Statistical quantities were obtained evaluating long-run experiments and transport coeffcients for finite dust systems were calculated via the instantaneous normal mode technique. Diffusion was found considerably higher for 3D than for 2D dust clusters. Using the configurational entropy, we have shown that in 2D and 3D disorder increases with increasing size of the system, in agreement with simulations. The temperature dependence of the configurational entropy differs for 2D and 3D dust clouds, with a threshold behavior found for finite 2D ensembles only. Finally, using instantaneous normal modes to reveal the total fraction of unstable modes, the predictive connection of Keyes (Phys Rev E 62, p7905, 2000), between transport and disorder was tested and verified for 2D, but not for 3D clusters. The reason for this has to be left open. Finally, laser-mediated recrystallization processes of finite 3D dust clouds were investigated. First, the temporal evolution of the Coulomb coupling parameter was traced during heating and recrystallization. A cooling rate has been determined from the initial phase of recrystallization. This cooling rate is lower than damping by the neutral gas, in agreement with simulations. We have observed a large fraction of metastable states for the final cluster configurations. Further, we have revealed that the time scale for the correlation buildup in the finite 3D ensemble was on even slower scales than cooling. Thus, different time scales can be attributed to the fast emergence of the shells and to the slower individual ordering within the shells.

Kernziel der Studie war die ĂberprĂŒfung konventionell im teiljustierbaren Artikulator hergestellter Arbeiten mit Hilfe der FGP(Functinally generated Path) - Methode nach Anton Griesbeck. Es wurden 29 FĂ€lle aus dem klinischen Studentenkurs der Zahnmedizinischen FakultĂ€t der UniversitĂ€t Greifswald untersucht. In 26 von 29 FĂ€llen gelang mit dem FGP â Verfahren die ĂberprĂŒfung und Korrektur vertikaler Interferenzen von Zahnersatz aus dem teiljustierbaren Artikulator, so dass dieser interferenzfrei eingegliedert werden konnte. Der PrĂ€zisionsvertikulator bietet mit Metallanschlag und Feinmessuhr eine gute Alternative zum teiljustierbaren Artikulator. Die untergeordnete Untersuchung von Materialwahl/InterferenzstĂ€rke und Geschlecht/InterferenzstĂ€rke zeigte keinen signifikanten Zusammenhang. Die Vermutung, dass sich im teiljustierbaren Artikulator vor allem distal Suprakontakte lokalisieren konnte nicht bestĂ€tigt werden. Die Ausrichtung der Suprakontakte zeigte sich in Ober- und Unterkiefer entlang der tragenden HĂ¶cker.