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A novel method for time-resolved tuned diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been developed. In this paper, we describe in detail developed electronic module that controls time-resolution of laser absorption spectroscopy system. The TTL signal triggering plasma pulse is used for generation of two signals: the first one triggers the fine tuning of laser wavelength and second one controls time-defined signal sampling from absorption detector. The described method and electronic system enable us to investigate temporal evolution of sputtered particles in technological low-temperature plasma systems. The pulsed DC planar magnetron sputtering system has been used to verify this method. The 2" in diameter titanium target was sputtered in pure argon atmosphere. The working pressure was held at 2 Pa. All the experiments were carried out for pulse ON time fixed at 100 (is. When changing OFF time the discharge has operated between High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering regime and pulsed DC magnetron regime. The effect of duty cycle variation results in decrease of titanium atom density during ON time while length of OFF time elongates. We believe that observed effect is connected with higher degree of ionization of sputtered particles. As previously reported by Bohlmark et al., the measured optical emission spectra in HiPIMS systems were dominated by emission from titanium ions [1].

Application of quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy to studies of fluorocarbon molecules
(2009)

The recent advent of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) enables room-temperature mid-infrared spectrometer operation which is particularly favourable for industrial process monitoring and control, i.e. the detection of transient and stable molecular species. Conversely, fluorocarbon containing radio-frequency discharges are of special interest for plasma etching and deposition as well as for fundamental studies on gas phase and plasma surface reactions. The application of QCL absorption spectroscopy to such low pressure plasmas is typically hampered by non-linear effects connected with the pulsed mode of the lasers. Nevertheless, adequate calibration can eliminate such effects, especially in the case of complex spectra where single line parameters are not available. In order to facilitate measurements in fluorocarbon plasmas, studies on complex spectra of CF4 and C3F8 at 7.86 μm (1269 – 1275 cm-1) under low pressure conditions have been performed. The intra-pulse mode, i.e. pulses of up to 300 ns, was applied yielding highly resolved spectral scans of ∼ 1 cm-1 coverage. Effective absorption cross sections were determined and their temperature dependence was studied in the relevant range up to 400 K and found to be non-negligible.

Fluorocarbon containing capacitively coupled radio frequency (cc-rf) plasmas are widely used in technical applications and as model systems for fundamental investigations of complex plasmas. Absorption spectroscopy based on pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCL) was applied in the mid-IR spectral range of 1269-1275 cm-1. Absolute densities of the precursor molecule CF4 and of the stable product C3F8 were measured with a time resolution of up to 1 ms in pulsed CF4/H2 asymmetrical cc-rf (13.56 MHz) discharges. For this purpose both the non-negligible temperature dependence of the absorption coefficients and the interference of the absorption features of CF4 and C3F8 had to be taken into account in the target spectral range. Therefore, at two different spectral positions composite absorption spectra were acquired under the same plasma conditions in order to discriminate between CF4 and C3F8 contributions. A total consumption of∼ 12 % was observed for CF4 during a 1 s plasma pulse, whereas C3F8 appeared to be produced mainly from amorphous fluorocarbon layers deposited at the reactor walls. A gas temperature increase by ∼ 100 K in the plasma pulse was estimated from the measurements. Additionally, not yet identified unresolved absorption (potentially from the excited CF4 molecule) was found during the àon-phase'.

We present a Green's function based treatment of the effects of electron-phonon coupling on transport through a molecular quantum dot in the quantum limit. Thereby we combine an incomplete variational Lang-Firsov approach with a perturbative calculation of the electron-phonon self energy in the framework of generalised Matsubara Green functions and a Landauer-type transport description. Calculating the ground-state energy, the dot single-particle spectral function and the linear conductance at finite carrier density, we study the low-temperature transport properties of the vibrating quantum dot sandwiched between metallic leads in the whole electron-phonon coupling strength regime. We discuss corrections to the concept of an anti-adiabatic dot polaron and show how a deformable quantum dot can act as a molecular switch.

In classical Drude theory the conductivity is determined by the mass of the propagating particles and the mean free path between two scattering events. For a quantum particle this simple picture of diffusive transport loses relevance if strong correlations dominate the particle motion. We study a situation where the propagation of a fermionic particle is possible only through creation and annihilation of local bosonic excitations. This correlated quantum transport process is outside the Drude picture, since one cannot distinguish between free propagation and intermittent scattering. The characterization of transport is possible using the Drude weight obtained from the f-sum rule, although its interpretation in terms of free mass and mean free path breaks down. For the situation studied we calculate the Green's function and Drude weight using a Green's functions expansion technique, and discuss their physical meaning.

A quantum kinetic approach is presented to investigate the energy relaxation of dense strongly coupled two-temperature plasmas. We derive a balance equation for the mean total energy of a plasma species including a quite general expression for the transfer rate. An approximation scheme is used leading to an expression of the transfer rates for systems with coupled modes relevant for the warm dense matter regime. The theory is then applied to dense beryllium plasmas under conditions such as realized in recent experiments. Special attention is paid to the influence of correlation and quantum effects on the relaxation process.

In order to clarify the physics of the crossover from a spin-density-wave (SDW) Mott insulator to a charge-density-wave (CDW) Peierls insulator in one-dimensional (1D) systems, we investigate the Hubbard-Holstein Hamiltonian at half filling within a density matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) approach. Determining the spin and charge correlation exponents, the momentum distribution function, and various excitation gaps, we confirm that an intervening metallic phase expands the SDW-CDW transition in the weak-coupling regime.

We discuss a numerical method to study electron transport in mesoscopic devices out of equilibrium. The method is based on the solution of operator equations of motion, using efficient Chebyshev time propagation techniques. Its peculiar feature is the propagation of operators backwards in time. In this way the resource consumption scales linearly with the number of states used to represent the system. This allows us to calculate the current for non-interacting electrons in large one-, two- and three-dimensional lead-device configurations with time-dependent voltages or potentials. We discuss the technical aspects of the method and present results for an electron pump device and a disordered system, where we find transient behaviour that exists for a very long time and may be accessible to experiments.

A research of the temperature effect of the muon cosmic ray (CR) component on the MuSTAnG super telescope data (Greifswald, Germany) for the whole period of its work (from 2007) was carried out. The primary hourly telescope's data were corrected for the temperature effect, using vertical temperature atmospheric profile at the standard isobaric levels obtained from the GFS model. To estimate the model accuracy and applicability the air sounding data for some years were used.

The properties of the ion feature of the Thomson scattering signal are investigated. Firstly, the description of the atomic form factor by hydrogen-like wave functions is reviewed and better screening charges are obtained. Then the ionic structure in systems with several ion species is calculated from the HNC integral equation.

Based on distributions of local Green's functions we present a stochastic approach to disordered systems. specifically we address Anderson localisation and cluster effects in binary alloys. Taking Anderson localisation of Holstein polarons as an example we discuss how this stochastic approach can be used for the investigation of interacting disordered systems.

The interaction of partially ionized plasmas with an electromagnetic field is investigated using quantum statistical methods. A general statistical expression for the current density of a plasma in an electromagnetic field is presented and considered in the high field regime. Expressions for the collisional absorption are derived and discussed. Further, partially ionized plasmas are considered. Plasma Bloch equations for the description of bound-free transitions are given and the absorption coefficient as well as rate coefficients for multiphoton ionization are derived and numerical results are presented.

First-principle path integral Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to analyze correlation effects in complex electron-hole plasmas, particularly with regard to the appearance of excitonic bound states. Results are discussed in relation to exciton formation in unconventional semiconductors with large electron hole mass asymmetry.

Collisional absorption of dense fully ionized plasmas in strong high-frequency laser fields is investigated in the non-relativistic case. Quantum statistical methods are used as well as molecular dynamics simulations. In the quantum statistical expressions for the electrical current density and the electron-ion collision frequency–valid for arbitrary field strength–strong correlations are taken into account. In addition, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the heating of dense plasmas in laser fields. Comparisons with the analytic results for different plasma parameters are given. Isothermal plasmas as well as two-temperature plasmas are considered.

The relaxation of nonideal two-temperature plasmas is investigated with a kinetic approach. First the energy transfer between the electrons and ions is described using different approximations: the energy transfer through classical collisions (Landau-Spitzer approach) is reviewed; quantum diffraction and strong collisions are included by applying the quantum Boltzmann equation; the influence of collective modes is considered on the basis of the Lenard-Balescu equation (coupled modes) and with the Fermi-Golden-Rule approach (independent electron and ion modes). Finally, the evolution of the species temperature is investigated. In nonideal plasmas, changes in the correlation energy have to be taken into account during the relaxation. It is demonstrated that ionic correlations can significantly influence the relaxation particularly the evolution of the ion temperature).

We investigate the equilibration of nonideal plasmas from initial states where each species has already established a Maxwellian distribution, but the species temperatures and the chemical composition are not in equilibrium. On the basis of quantum kinetic equations, we derive hydrodynamic balance equations for the species densities and temperatures. The coupled density-temperature relaxation is then given in terms of the energy transfer between the subsystems and the population kinetics. We use the Landau-Spitzer approach for the energy transfer rates and a system of rate equations to describe the nonequilibrium plasma composition. Nonideality corrections are included in the rate coefficients and as potential energy contributions in the temperature equations on the simplest level of a Debye shift.

The triple-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN has demonstrated the feasibility of mass spectrometry of in-trap-decay product ions. This novel technique gives access to radionuclides, which are not produced directly at ISOL-type radioactive ion beam facilities. As a proof of principle, the in-trap decay of 37K+ has been investigated in a Penning trap filled with helium buffer gas. The half-life of the mother nuclide was confirmed and the recoiling 37Ar+ daughter ion was contained within the trap. The ions of either the mother or the daughter nuclide were transferred to a precision Penning trap, where their mass was determined.

Colossal magneto-resistance manganites are characterized by a complex interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. Formulating microscopic models for these compounds aims at meeting two conflicting objectives: sufficient simplification without excessive restrictions on the phase space. We give a detailed introduction to the electronic structure of manganites and derive a microscopic model for their low-energy physics. Focusing on short-range electron–lattice and spin–orbital correlations we supplement the modelling with numerical simulations.

Low-pressure plasmas offer a unique possibility of confinement, control and
fine tailoring of particle properties. Hence, dusty plasmas have grown
into a vast field and new applications of plasma-processed dust particles
are emerging. There is demand for particles with special properties and
for particle-seeded composite materials. For example, the stability of
luminophore particles could be improved by coating with protective Al2O3
films which are deposited by a PECVD process using a metal-organic precursor gas.
Alternatively, the interaction between plasma and injected micro-disperse powder
particles can also be used as a diagnostic tool for the study of plasma surface
processes. Two examples will be provided: the interaction of micro-sized (SiO2)
grains confined in a radiofrequency plasma with an external ion beam as well as
the effect of a dc-magnetron discharge on confined particles during deposition
have been investigated.

The region surrounding the excitonic insulator phase is a three-component plasma composed of electrons, holes, and excitons. Due to the extended nature of the excitons, their presence influences the surrounding electrons and holes. We analyze this correlation. To this end, we calculate the density of bound electrons, the density of electrons in the correlated state, the momentum-resolved exciton density, and the momentum-resolved density of electron-hole pairs that are correlated but unbound. We find qualitative differences in the electron-hole correlations between the weak-coupling and the strong-coupling regime.