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Investigation of the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA on the medulloblastoma cell line DAOY

  • Medulloblastoma is one of the most common malignant childhood brain tumors. Although advances in multimodal treatment have significantly improved the survival rate, the outcome of children is still very poor. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel approaches that can increase survival and reduce long term side effects of patients. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have emerged as a promising new class of antineoplastic agents in cancer therapy. Among them, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza®) is a highly potential HDI which has been approved for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and is currently used for treatment of various tumor cell types both in vivo and in vitro. However, only little information has been reported on the effects of SAHA on primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors including medulloblastoma. The DAOY cell line represents the most widely used model cell line for investigation of medulloblastoma. In a recent study, it was reported that SAHA induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of DAOY cells (Sonnemann et al., 2006). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this antitumor activity are still not clear. Therefore, in this study, effects of SAHA on DAOY cells were analysed at the protein level by using both gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches. A 2D proteome reference map of DAOY cells in pH range of 4-7 was created from control and 10 µM SAHA treated cells via a combined analysis using 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. This reference map covers 1196 identified protein spots of more than 770 distinct proteins. This is the first report of a 2D proteome map of SAHA treated DAOY cells. Moreover, the number of covered proteins was increased with the aid of a 1D-RP-LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Both methods together gave rise to a total of over 1200 distinct protein species, which is the largest catalogue of proteins identified in DAOY cells so far. In SAHA treated cells, a series of proteins were found to be subjected to protein degradation after treatment with the drug, including mainly cytoskeleton proteins (e.g. beta-tubulin, beta/gamma-actin, vimentin, filamin interacting protein 1), heat shock protein HS90B and a component of the FACT chromosomal remodelling complex (SSRP1). Most of those proteins are known substrates for caspases. Interestingly, several of these protein degradations are reported as typical apoptotic events in brain cells such as fragmentations of lamin A/C, alpha-spectrin, myosin-9 and SSRP1. The 2D reference map was then used as an annotated database for further investigation of changes in protein expression and protein modification profiles of DAOY cells following SAHA treatment. By using the 2D-DIGE technique, SAHA was found to induce significant changes in protein levels of DAOY cells, especially at the concentration of 10 µM while considerably fewer changes in the protein pattern were observed after treatment with the lower dose of 2 µM. Quantitative analysis of total protein extracts using the 2D-DIGE technique (employing pH range of 4-7) and spectral counting (employing a 1D-RP-LC separation) resulted in the identification of 213 differentially expressed proteins after treatment with 10 µM SAHA. Most of the targeted proteins belong to the groups of cytoskeleton proteins (e.g. lamin B1, calreticulin, dynexin), heat shock proteins (e.g. HSP71, HSP7C, CH60, GRP78) and brain signal transductors (e.g. 14-3-3E, 14-3-3T, CRK, MARCS). Other proteins that changed in levels after SAHA treatment include proteins involved in chromatin remodelling (e.g. RUBV1, RUBV2), transcription regulation (e.g. YBOX, CBX5), redox regulation (e.g. TXND4, TXND5, BIEA), metabolism (e.g. G6PI, K6PP, LDHB) and RNA processing (HNRP K). In addition, cathepsin D, one of autophagic executors, was increased by SAHA treatment while different subunits of the 26S proteasome complex were decreased in levels after addition of SAHA. Interestingly, we found alterations of mitochondrial proteins indicating the perturbation of mitochondrial function. VDACs are pore forming proteins located on the outer mitochondrial membrane which is known to play an important role in the release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome-c from mitochondria to cytoplasm and induction of apoptosis. In this study, VDAC1 and VDAC3 were found to be overexpressed after incubation with SAHA, which might lead to an extensive release of apoptogenic proteins. This result is consistent with the study of Sonnemann and co-workers showing that SAHA induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway of DAOY cells (Sonnemann et al., 2006). Furthermore, these results are also in agreement with the previously known antitumor activities of SAHA reported for other cancer cell lines, e.g. the up-regulation of heat shock proteins, prostaglandin synthase 3, ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase or the down-regulation of MARCS proteins. …………………
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Author: Thuy Thu Pham
Title Additional (English):x
Title Additional (German):Untersuchungen zum Effekt den Histondeacetylaseinhibitor SAHA auf die Medulloblastomazellinie DAOY
Advisor:Prof. Dr. F. James Beck, Prof. Dr. Uwe Völker
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2009/07/07
Granting Institution:Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät (bis 31.05.2018)
Date of final exam:2009/06/29
Release Date:2009/07/07
DAOY cell line, Histone deacetylase inhibitor, gel-based and gel-free proteomic analysis, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid
GND Keyword:Proteomeanalyse
Faculties:Universitätsmedizin / Arbeitsgruppe "Funktionelle Genomforschung"
DDC class:500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
MSC-Classification:92-XX BIOLOGY AND OTHER NATURAL SCIENCES / 92Cxx Physiological, cellular and medical topics / 92C40 Biochemistry, molecular biology