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Differentially expressed proteins in prostate cancer and functional characterization of proteins with altered expression

  • Summary Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer found in men from western countries and is the leading cancer death next to lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Proteomic studies on PCa identified a number of differentially expressed proteins and some of them were reported as potential markers, but clinical application of these markers is mostly missing. Most of the expression profiling studies have been carried out on radical prostatectomy specimens, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections, serum, urine and prostate fluids. To define the protein expression pattern of prostate biopsies, in the present study we investigated biopsy samples from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa patients by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (BPH n=11 and PCa n=12) and mass spectrometry to identify potential biomarkers which might distinguish the two clinical situations. 2-DE results revealed 88 protein spots expressed differentially among hyperplasia and cancer groups with statistical significance. Interesting spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS-MS and 79 different proteins identified. The important proteins identified included, Prohibitin and NDRG1 tumor suppressor proteins, HSPs, cytoskeletal proteins, enzymes like DDAH1 and ALDH2. Prohibitin expression was investigated in detail at mRNA level and protein level using immunohistochemistry on prostatectomized specimens. We found that the level of mRNA for prohibitin correlates with the increased amount of protein indicating the involvement of changes at transcriptional level. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed no staining in BPH, moderate staining in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and strong staining in PCa. From the list of differentially proteins compared to PCa, TPD52 is over expressed in prostate cancer and also mRNA estimation by real-time PCR confirmed over expression of TPD52 at transcriptional level in cancer. TPD52 is a protein over expressed in prostate and breast cancer due to gene amplification but its exact physiological function is not investigated in detail. In the present study, we explored the responsiveness of LNCaP cells after dysregulation of TPD52 expression. Transfection of LNCaP cells with specific shRNA giving efficient knockdown of TPD52 resulted in a significant cell death of the carcinoma LNCaP cells. As evidenced by the activation of caspases (caspase-3 and -9) and by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death occurs due to apoptosis. The disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential indicates that TPD52 acts upstream of the mitochondrial apoptotic reaction. To study the effect of TPD52 expression on cell proliferation, LNCaP cells were either transfected with EGFP-TPD52 or a specific shRNA. EGFP-TPD52 overexpressing cells showed an increased proliferation rate whereas TPD52-depleted cells showed a reverse effect. Additionally, we demonstrated that the exogenous expression of TPD52 promotes cell migration via ávâ3 integrin in prostate cancer cells through the activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway. In an attempt to identify new interacting proteins for TPD52, GST pulldown assays provided evidence for the physical interaction between TPD52 and Prx1 in LNCaP cells. Further, immunoprecipitation results confirmed this interaction. Our results demonstrates that protein profiling and mRNA studies can be performed on prostate biopsies. Moreover, our study revealed a significant up-regulation of prohibitin in prostate cancer compared to BPH which may be a potential marker to distinguish PCa and BPH. From the results for functional characterization of TPD52, we conclude that TPD52 plays an important role in various molecular events particularly in morphological diversification and dissemination of PCa. It may be a promising target to investigate further in detail to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat PCa patients. Caspases represent a family of cysteine proteases that are regarded as central executioners of apoptotic cell death. Activation of caspase cascade is an essential prerequisite in the induction of apoptosis in cellular systems. So far, in many tumors caspases were shown to be downregulated while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 is up-regulated. To get insight in their putative role in PCa progression we determined the expression of caspase-1, uncleaved caspases 3 and 6, cleaved (activated) caspases 3 and 6, caspase-9 and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in benign prostate epithelium (BPE) and prostate carcinoma. In the current study 20 prostates were obtained from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy due to PCa. Paraffin embedded prostate whole mounts were cut at (4 µm) and investigated immunohistochemically using anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against caspases 1 and 9, uncleaved caspases 3 and 6, cleaved caspases 3 and 6, and Bcl-2. In BPE all caspases were localized in the cytoplasm of glandular cells. Comparing BPE to PCa, no differences were found for caspase-1, uncleaved caspases 3 and 6 as well as caspase-9. Immunostaining for cleaved caspases 3 and 6, however, revealed a statistically significant reduction in PCa compared to non-neoplastic tissue. Whereas in BPE Bcl-2 protein was detected in the basal compartment of epithelial gland cells no immunostaining was seen in PCa. As our results show a decreased amount of activated caspases may be due to the alterations of posttranslational cleavage rather than expression of caspases 3 and 6. This suggests that the modification in their activation pathway could play an important role during PCa progression.
  • Summary Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer found in men from western countries and is the leading cancer death next to lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Proteomic studies on PCa identified a number of differentially expressed proteins and some of them were reported as potential markers, but clinical application of these markers is mostly missing. Most of the expression profiling studies have been carried out on radical prostatectomy specimens, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections, serum, urine and prostate fluids. To define the protein expression pattern of prostate biopsies, in the present study we investigated biopsy samples from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa patients by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (BPH n=11 and PCa n=12) and mass spectrometry to identify potential biomarkers which might distinguish the two clinical situations. 2-DE results revealed 88 protein spots expressed differentially among hyperplasia and cancer groups with statistical significance. Interesting spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS-MS and 79 different proteins identified. The important proteins identified included, Prohibitin and NDRG1 tumor suppressor proteins, HSPs, cytoskeletal proteins, enzymes like DDAH1 and ALDH2. Prohibitin expression was investigated in detail at mRNA level and protein level using immunohistochemistry on prostatectomized specimens. We found that the level of mRNA for prohibitin correlates with the increased amount of protein indicating the involvement of changes at transcriptional level. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed no staining in BPH, moderate staining in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and strong staining in PCa. From the list of differentially proteins compared to PCa, TPD52 is over expressed in prostate cancer and also mRNA estimation by real-time PCR confirmed over expression of TPD52 at transcriptional level in cancer. TPD52 is a protein over expressed in prostate and breast cancer due to gene amplification but its exact physiological function is not investigated in detail. In the present study, we explored the responsiveness of LNCaP cells after dysregulation of TPD52 expression. Transfection of LNCaP cells with specific shRNA giving efficient knockdown of TPD52 resulted in a significant cell death of the carcinoma LNCaP cells. As evidenced by the activation of caspases (caspase-3 and -9) and by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death occurs due to apoptosis. The disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential indicates that TPD52 acts upstream of the mitochondrial apoptotic reaction. To study the effect of TPD52 expression on cell proliferation, LNCaP cells were either transfected with EGFP-TPD52 or a specific shRNA. EGFP-TPD52 overexpressing cells showed an increased proliferation rate whereas TPD52-depleted cells showed a reverse effect. Additionally, we demonstrated that the exogenous expression of TPD52 promotes cell migration via ávâ3 integrin in prostate cancer cells through the activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway. In an attempt to identify new interacting proteins for TPD52, GST pulldown assays provided evidence for the physical interaction between TPD52 and Prx1 in LNCaP cells. Further, immunoprecipitation results confirmed this interaction. Our results demonstrates that protein profiling and mRNA studies can be performed on prostate biopsies. Moreover, our study revealed a significant up-regulation of prohibitin in prostate cancer compared to BPH which may be a potential marker to distinguish PCa and BPH. From the results for functional characterization of TPD52, we conclude that TPD52 plays an important role in various molecular events particularly in morphological diversification and dissemination of PCa. It may be a promising target to investigate further in detail to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat PCa patients. Caspases represent a family of cysteine proteases that are regarded as central executioners of apoptotic cell death. Activation of caspase cascade is an essential prerequisite in the induction of apoptosis in cellular systems. So far, in many tumors caspases were shown to be downregulated while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 is up-regulated. To get insight in their putative role in PCa progression we determined the expression of caspase-1, uncleaved caspases 3 and 6, cleaved (activated) caspases 3 and 6, caspase-9 and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in benign prostate epithelium (BPE) and prostate carcinoma. In the current study 20 prostates were obtained from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy due to PCa. Paraffin embedded prostate whole mounts were cut at (4 µm) and investigated immunohistochemically using anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against caspases 1 and 9, uncleaved caspases 3 and 6, cleaved caspases 3 and 6, and Bcl-2. In BPE all caspases were localized in the cytoplasm of glandular cells. Comparing BPE to PCa, no differences were found for caspase-1, uncleaved caspases 3 and 6 as well as caspase-9. Immunostaining for cleaved caspases 3 and 6, however, revealed a statistically significant reduction in PCa compared to non-neoplastic tissue. Whereas in BPE Bcl-2 protein was detected in the basal compartment of epithelial gland cells no immunostaining was seen in PCa. As our results show a decreased amount of activated caspases may be due to the alterations of posttranslational cleavage rather than expression of caspases 3 and 6. This suggests that the modification in their activation pathway could play an important role during PCa progression.

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Metadaten
Author: Ramesh Ummanni
URN:urn:nbn:de:gbv:9-000520-4
Title Additional (English):Differentially expressed proteins in prostate cancer and functional characterization of proteins with altered expression
Title Additional (German):Unterschiedlich exprimierte Proteine im Prostatakarzinom und funktionelle Charakterisierung von Proteinen mit veränderter Expression
Advisor:Dr. Reinhard Walther
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2008/10/06
Granting Institution:Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät (bis 31.05.2018)
Date of final exam:2008/10/01
Release Date:2008/10/06
Tag:Prostatakarzinom, TPD52
TPD52, prostate cancer
GND Keyword:Tumorbiologie
Faculties:Universitätsmedizin / Institut für Med. Biochemie u. Molekularbiologie
DDC class:500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie